Elite feminism among Creole women in Puerto Rico was rare in the 1920s and 1930s. However, a small group of female writers and educators strove to achieve empowerment and a class identity despite patriarchal control over literary and intellectual cultures. Two outstanding Puerto Rican women who played important roles in establishing a feminine literary and intellectual identity were suffragist Mercedes Sola and Margot Arce, an essayist and university professor at the University of Puerto Rico.
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