Intercultural communication competence (ICC) has been examined from diverse perspectives in recent decades. Although scholars generally agree that ICC consists of affective, cognitive, and behavioral dimensions, there is no consensus about what it means to be interculturally competent. In addition, while the cultural process has been emphasized by many scholars in theorizing ICC, the focus continues to be on the acquisition of cultural knowledge, rather than how cultures interact and how this dynamic process shapes ICC development. In this paper we highlight the dynamic cultural process by conceptualizing ICC from the perspective of interculturality. Interculturality embodies the multiple connections between cultures, by which interactants endeavor to reduce cultural distance, negotiate shared meanings, and build up intercultural harmony. It constitutes both the interacting process and the desired outcome of intercultural communication. From the perspective of interculturality, ICC can be conceived as the ability to reach reciprocity and mutuality in order to establish harmonious relationships across cultures. We first conceptualize interculturality, then discuss its significance to intercultural communication, and finally re-examine ICC within the framework of interculturality and explore its theoretical implications. [Xiaodong Dai and Guo-Ming Chen: On Interculturality and Intercultural Communication Competence, China Media Research 2015; 11(3): 100-113]. 10 Keywords: intercultural communication, intercultural communication competence, intercultural harmony, interculturality
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