Volatile compounds, antioxidants, and anticancer activities of Cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.): An in-vitro study
Byline: Manal. Ramadan, Ahmed. El-Ghorab, Kadry. Ghanem
Background/aim Cape gooseberry is golden-colored spherical fruit commercially produced in Egypt. It is primarily used in folk medicine for treating some diseases. To identify the aroma compounds in Cape gooseberry and to evaluate its antioxidant activities as well as its anticancer (for colon and breast cancers) effects in human cell lines. Materials and methods The volatile compounds were identified using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Polyphenols (phenolics and flavonoids) were also determined. Antioxidant activity was determined by three different methods: 2,2?-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Anticancer (for colon or breast cancer) activity was determined in cancer cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results A total of 34 components of the essential oil were identified by GC and GC-MS. The volatile compounds were grouped in classes of substances, including 11 terpene compounds (six monoterpenoids and five sesquiterpene), 11 esters, five alcohols, two phenolic compounds, two aldehydes, two ketones, and one lactone. Terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) were the most abundant volatile constituents, accounting for the largest portion of the total volatiles (36.09%). The next most abundant compounds were esters, comprising 17.17% of the total volatile components identified. Phenolic compounds were the next most abundant compounds, comprising 16.04% of the total volatiles. Alcohols and aldehydes represented 6.37 and 1.88% of the total volatile compounds, respectively. Ketones and lactones are less abundant in the profile of volatile compounds in Cape gooseberry. Ethanol extract had higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than did hexane extract. As ethanol extract of Cape gooseberry achieved higher antioxidant activity than did hexane extract, it tested as an anticancer (for colon or breast cancer) agent. Cape gooseberry extract was more potent in inhibiting colon cell lines (IC [sub]50 : 142 [micro]g/ml) compared with breast cell line (IC [sub]50 : 371 [micro]g/ml). Conclusion Egyptian Cape gooseberry fruits may be suggested as a potential source of natural antioxidants and anticancer agents.
Functional foods represent an emerging market of growing economic importance. International markets exist for many exotic fruits, and recently the processing of tropical fruits started in many countries [sup] . In 2005, there were more than 1.8 million acres of berry crops worldwide including 966 acres of gooseberries [sup] .
Cape gooseberries are annuals or short-lived perennials, and are flavor and appearance, though the taste (sweet and sour) is much richer with a hint of tropical luxuriance. The plant is fairly adaptable to wide variety of soils and good crops are obtained on poor sandy ground [sup], .
Cape gooseberry ( Physalis peruviana Linn., Solanaceae) has been grown in Egypt, South Africa, India, New Zealand, Australia, and Great Britain [sup], . Cape gooseberry ( P. peruviana L.) is a cherry-sized, yellow-fleshed intriguing berry, which was originally cultivated in the Andes. The round orange fruit is loosely enclosed in a papery husk, which provides a natural wrapper for storing the fruit, as long as it is kept dry. Cape gooseberry is used in folk...