Background: There is increasing concern about the fruit growth, development and quality of wax apple(Syzygium samarangense), a widely cultivated fruit tree in South East Asia. The growth and development of this fruit sometimes very low due low photosynthates supply and unfavourable growing conditions. Premature bud and fruit drop is a serious problem in wax apple production and quality. Growth regulators, hydrogen peroxide and phloemic stress are important tools to improve the quality and reduced the preharvest fruit dropof wax apple. Objectives:To investigate the causes and remedies of premature fruit drop of wax apple and the findings of this study will help to increase the fruit yield by reducing the bud and premature fruit abscission. Results:It was observed that plant growth regulators, hydrogen peroxide and phloemic stress improved the fruit retention and improved the quality of fruits.G[A.sub.3] 50 and 20 mg/L treatment during flowering reduced the bud and fruit drop of wax apple. Synthetic auxin (2,4-D and NAA) at 5 mg/L treatment during the flowering also reduced the fruit drop and enhanced the quality.C and V-shaped girdling 3 weeks before flowering increased number of flowers and reduced the premature fruit drop of wax apple fruits. Conclusion: This review also concluded that hydrogen peroxide treatment at flowering and fruit formation stage reduced bud and fruit drop and improve the fruit qaultiy of wax apple. The findings of the review have significant effect to reduce preharvest fruit drop and develop wax apple fruit industries in tropical climates.
KEYWORDS: Bud drop, fruit drop, cause, remedy, wax apple
The wax apple is botanically identified as Syzygium samarangense . It is a nonclimacteric tropical fruit from the Myrtaceae family withthe pear-shaped fruits, usually pink, light red or red, sometimes greenish-white or cream-coloured, often crisp, with a subtle sweet taste and an aromatic flavour. Wax apple is widely cultivated throughout Malaysia, mainly as smallholdings ranging from 1 to 5 ha, with a total hectarage estimated at 1500 ha in 2005 . In Malaysia, fruit production is non seasonal and almost all of the fruit is edible. The fruit pulp is a rich source of phenolics, flavonoids and several antioxidant compounds and as a result it is believed to have great potential benefits for human health. It has become an increasingly popular fruit in the tropical region where it can fetch a price of up to 3USD per kilogramme and has the potential to bring great benefits to local farmers and the country's economy. However, severe fruit drop (Figure 1) and low quality impair wax apple production, resulting in lower market prices.
During the early growth stages, excessive fruit drop is caused by cultural and environmental factors that affect pollination, flower fertilization and fruit set. Unhealthy foliage and fruit damaged by diseases, insects and abotic factors also can result in early fruit drop. Most of the premature fruit drop is normally heavier on young trees especially if they are extremely vigorous. There is not much else a grower can do to reduce fruit drop other than...
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