Anti-inflammatory homoeopathic drug dilutions restrain lipopolysaccharide-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines: In vitro and in vivo evidence

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Authors: Umesh Mahajan, Ajit Walke, Mahendra Kardile, Sameer Goyal, Sumit Siddharth and Chanakya Kundu
Date: July-September 2017
From: Indian Journal of Research in Homoeopathy(Vol. 11, Issue 3)
Publisher: Medknow Publications and Media Pvt. Ltd.
Document Type: Report
Length: 6,384 words

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Byline: Umesh. Mahajan, Ajit. Walke, Mahendra. Kardile, Sameer. Goyal, Sumit. Siddharth, Chanakya. Kundu, Shreesh. Ojha, Chandragouda. Patil

Context: The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine release and oxidative stress are validated experimental parameters used to test anti-inflammatory activity. We investigated the effects of homoeopathic mother tinctures, 6 CH, 30 CH and 200 CH dilutions of Arnica montana, Thuja occidentalis and Bryonia alba against LPS (1 [micro]g/ml)-induced cytokine release from RAW-264.7 cells and human whole-blood culture. Materials and Methods: For in vivo evaluations, mice were orally treated with 0.1 ml drug dilutions twice a day for 5 days followed by an intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 mg/kg LPS. After 24 h, the mice were sacrificed and serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide were determined. The extent of oxidative stress was determined in the liver homogenates as contents of reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Results: The tested drug dilutions significantly reduced in vitro LPS-induced release of tumour necrosis factor-a, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 from the RAW-264.7 cells and human whole blood culture. Similar suppression of cytokines was evident in mice serum samples. These drugs also protected mice from the LPS-induced oxidative stress in liver tissue. Conclusions: Our findings substantiate the protective effects of Arnica, Thuja and Bryonia homoeopathic dilutions against LPS-induced cytokine elevations and oxidative stress. This study authenticates the claims of anti-inflammatory efficacy of these homoeopathic drugs.


Homoeopathy has remained the most widespread and still a contentious mode of therapy. Homoeopathic medicines are prepared according to the methods endorsed in the homoeopathic pharmacopoeias. The therapeutic efficacy of these medicines is established through administration of the crude form of source material to healthy volunteers and recording their behavioural symptoms. Very minute doses of a homoeopathic dilution of a drug are considered to cure the diseases presenting similar symptoms which are induced by crude form of that drug in healthy volunteers. Apart from this, the medicines are selected dependent on the experiences as recorded in authoritative homoeopathic literature and to some extent by means of research.[sup][1]

The issues of standardisation and establishment of pharmacological profiles have never been systematically settled in Homoeopathy. However, in the last few decades, claims about the efficacy of homoeopathic medicines and their high dilutions are being revisited using validated pharmacological assays. Such studies help in critically examining and scrutinising the pharmacodynamics of the homoeopathic drugs.[sup][2] Validated experimental models used in establishing the pharmacodynamics of modern drugs are increasingly being used in demonstrating the efficacy of the homoeopathic drugs and their high dilutions. Recently, we have reviewed the literature on experimental proving of the anti-inflammatory activities of homoeopathic drugs and their dilutions.[sup][3] These studies on high dilutions of homoeopathic drugs along with continued efforts to reproduce their findings are adding to the scientific data on efficacy of homoeopathic drugs. A recent report has established the reproducibility of claims related to the effects of high dilutions of histamine on the basophil function. This study involved a strictly standardised flow cytometry protocol and showed that low and high dilutions of...

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Source Citation
Mahajan, Umesh, et al. "Anti-inflammatory homoeopathic drug dilutions restrain lipopolysaccharide-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines: In vitro and in vivo evidence." Indian Journal of Research in Homoeopathy, vol. 11, no. 3, July-Sept. 2017, p. 158. Accessed 27 Jan. 2023.

Gale Document Number: GALE|A505565996