Byline: Samantha. Roloff, Jeffrey. Scholten, Jennifer. Chuang, Chun. Hu, David. Fast
Background: Rosa damascena and Poria cocos are ingredients commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. R. damascena is used to promote blood circulation as well as liver and stomach function, while P. cocos is used to eliminate dampness and enhance spleen function. Objective: The objective of the study is to investigate possible mechanisms by which R. damascena and P. cocos may promote immune function. Materials and Methods: Phagocytosis and dendritic cell (DC) surface marker expression assays were used to evaluate the effect of R. damascena and P. cocos extracts on human THP-1 monocytic leukemia cell biology. Results: R. damascena and P. cocos extracts both enhanced phagocytosis of latex beads by THP-1 cells, and when combined, phagocytosis was enhanced to a level greater than what might be expected by adding the individual phagocytosis responses together. In addition, both extracts enhanced maturation of THP-1 cells into a DC phenotype as measured by increased surface expression of the costimulatory molecules CD14, CD40, CD80, and CD86. Conclusion: These results suggest that Rosa damascena and P. cocos may promote monocyte phagocytosis and then stimulate differentiation of the cells into DCs thereby bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. Abbreviations used: AKT: Protein kinase B; AP-1: Activator protein-1; Bcl2: B cell lymphoma-2; CD: Cluster of differentiation; COX-2: Cyclooxygenase-2; DC: Dendritic cell; EGFR: Epidermal growth factor receptor; FOXO1: Forkhead box protein-1; GM-CSF: Granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor; HLA: Human leukocyte antigen; HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography; IL-1[sz]: Interleukin-1[sz]; IL-4: Interleukin-4; M1: Classically activated macrophage; M2: Alternatively activated macrophage; MAPK: Mitogen-activated protein kinase; NF?B: Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells; NLRP3: NLR Family Pyrin Domain Containing 3; ?: Phagocytic index; p53: Tumor protein p53; PARP: Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase; PMA: Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; PRR: Pattern recognition receptor; STAT: Signal transducer and activator of transcription SD: Standard deviation; Syk: Spleen tyrosine kinase; TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine.
*The aim of this study was to study potential immune function enhancing properties of Traditional Chinese Medicine ingredient. Results. Rosa damascena and Poria cocos extracts enhanced phagocytosis and a dendritic cell phenotype in THP-1 cells.
Monocytes are peripheral blood mononuclear cells that make up approximately 10% of circulating leukocytes in humans. They are a heterogeneous cell population with the ability to differentiate into macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), and osteoclasts. Monocytes are an important part of the innate immune system as they recognize potential pathogens due to their expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and on PRR engagement, produce proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines that serve to recruit other leukocytes to an infection site and amplify the resulting inflammatory response. They are also able to phagocytose microbes, and following phagocytosis may link innate immunity to adaptive immunity by migrating to draining lymph nodes where they differentiate into DC to present antigen to T lymphocytes with increased expression of costimulatory receptors such as CD40, CD80, and CD86. DCs are the primary type of antigen-presenting cells and therefore play a primary role in the initiation of adaptive...
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