Byline: Attiq-Ur-Rehman Kakar, Naqeebullah Khan, Samiullah, Naeemullah Amir Waseem and Fazal Ur Rehman
Summary: Chemiluminescence has appealed significant attention in multidisciplinary diagnostic research fields and revealed various encouraging applications due to its unique selective and sensitive nature. This paper provides a comprehensive review about the principles of flow injection analysis (FIA) and the important parameters regarding the technique. The ideology of chemiluminescence (CL), luminol (Lu) as a CL reagent and its applications in basic medium (liquid-phase) when coupled with FIA as a diagnostic tool in diverse fields of analytical chemistry have been described. The data of 107 papers, which appeared in the literature from 2013 to present (up to our access) for the determination of vital analytes in diverse sample matrices in terms of chemical reaction, sample matrix, analyte, dynamic linear range, limits of detection, sample throughput and coefficient of determination is presented in the tables.
The reactions based on FILu-CL involved in mechanistic and chemical studies of medically important substances have also been reviewed. The use of nanotechnology has improved the analytical and diagnostic characteristics of FI-CL strategies by improving the detection limits and further advancements are expected in future with the discovery of new synthetic nano-particles.
Keywords: Flow injection, Dispersion, Chemiluminescence, Luminol, Nano-technology.
Flow Injection Analysis It is the demand of present age to carry out trace, rapid, precise and accurate analysis with minimum budget in many fields like environmental, industrial, pharmaceutical, clinical and food analyses. A very useful technique i.e. flow injection analysis (FIA) fulfilling these demands and was first introduced by two Danish researchers Ruzicka and Hansen in 1975 . One year later, the inventors proposed several practical techniques . Eleven years later, the authors reported a widespread review about the new progresses made in FIA  that describes the wide range applications of FIA in the fields of chemical, biological, environmental and pharmaceutical analyses covering several books (39) and 13000 publications . It is because, this technique allows analysts to easily automate and optimize powerful wet chemical methods for routine laboratory analyses.
Due to its small sample volume and reagent consumption, online matrix separation and/or pre-concentration phase with high sample throughput, it is widely accepted as a powerful tool for analytical procedures within the science world and numerous reviews and books have been published about its applications [5, 6].
Principle of FIA
The basic principle of FIA involves the introduction of liquid sample into a liquid constant sinuous stream known as sample transporter. The introduced sample becomes a part of moving incessantly carrier stream and produces a region, into which preset reagents at a definite flow rates are mixed. During flow in a mixing coil, chemical reaction takes place yielding analyte into a detectable substance. The processed sample mover is finally then conceded towards a detector that reports signal of electrode potential, absorbance, fluorescence or other physical property of the sample traveling through the flow cell of volume about 8 ul . Finally, the sample is washed out.
A simple manifold for...
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