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Gale eBooks offers you a collection of premier reference books that you can view and search online. Select a book to browse its table of contents. When the book is part of a series, you will first need to select a specific volume.

Search Box

Type terms in the search box and then select one of the following options:

  • Basic: A good all-purpose search
  • Subject: Find content about a topic
  • Publication: Look for content from a specific book
  • Entire Document: Search every word
  • Within: Search within your results (appears only when viewing search results)

TIP Additional ways to search include Advanced and Subject Guide. [Search Tips]

Did You Know?

All book articles are available as PDFs, which you can download to your computer, phone, or other device.

 


Help Contents

About this Publication

From a publication's Table of Contents, you can link to its About this Publication page.

Publication Information and Tools

Use the About this Publication page to do the following tasks:
  • view publication details
  • search within the entire publication or within an edition or volume
  • cite the publication, and use other Tools

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Advanced Search

Create a highly customized search query using a combination of search terms, indexes, and limiters.

Indexes

Use the all-purpose Keyword index, or focus your search on a specific kind of data, such as Author or Document Title.

Limiters

Use the More Options to include or exclude different kinds of content from your results. Limiters are a great way to narrow your search.

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Book Index

The Book Index page appears for those books that contain an index. When a book has more than one index, the main index, as designated by Gale's editorial staff, is the first one displayed. You can select a different index from the list that is provided.

You can navigate the Book Index in the following ways:

  • Use the Previous and Next links
  • Type a word in the browse box
  • Select a letter link

NOTE The Book Index browse box positions you in the index based on the starting letters of the term that you entered. It is not a search in the sense of finding all occurrences of the term within the index.

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Custom Collections

Gale Admin users are able to group their Gale eBooks into custom collections that display on the homepage.

Accessing the customization portal

Accessing this feature requires Gale Admin credentials. To log in, admin users can click on the Librarian Sign-In button located below the Collections sidebar on the homepage. For assistance in locating your credentials, there is a “Forgot Password” option, or users can contact our Technical Support team at (800) 877-4253 (option 4).

Creating a collection

Once logged in, admins will see the customization portal. Click on New Collection to bring up the creation screen. From there, you can name the collection and provide an optional description. To start adding titles, click on Add Titles. This brings up a search screen. Admins can search for keywords in a book’s title or description, by ISBN, by publisher, or by subject. After executing a search, simply click on a book to add it to the collection. You can continue to run new searches, and all of your prior selections will be retained. When you are finished adding titles, click Done to save the collection.

NOTE Books can only be added to custom collections, not the default Gale collections. Custom collections are identified with a blue icon within the customization portal.

Hiding a collection

Admins can choose to disable collections by switching the Enabled toggle to Off. This hides the collection from the homepage but does not remove books from search results. Collections can be turned back on at any time.

Reorganizing collections

Admins can change the order in which books appear within a collection by dragging and dropping the ebook covers. The first five books in a collection will appear on the Gale eBooks homepage. This can be done for both custom and Gale default collections. Admins can also change the order in which the collections appear by dragging and dropping the category names on the left-hand side. Changes are automatically saved.

Additional information

Additional help on custom collections is available from the Gale Support site: http://assets.cengage.com/training/SearchTips/GVRL/GVRL_Customization_Portal.pdf

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Document Tools

Tools (such as Cite and Download) are available in the contextual toolbar. There you will also find special research tools like Highlights and Notes.

Cite

The Cite tool generates document citations in MLA 9, APA 6, and Chicago 17 formats.

Send To

The Send To tool allows you to email full-text content or export documents to Google Drive or Microsoft OneDrive.

Download

The Download tool provides a PDF download of the document for offline reading.

Print

The Print tool allows you to print a hard copy of the document.

Get Link

The Get Link tool provides a reliable permalink for the document.

Highlights and Notes

Here's how to highlight text and take notes:

  1. Select text
  2. Click or tap the Highlight tool to choose a color
  3. Optional: Add notes

MOBILE TIP To select text, tap the first word and then tap the last word that you want to highlight.

To access your Highlights and Notes during your current session, click or tap the Highlights and Notes icon from any page. Be sure to send, download, or print your Highlights and Notes before closing your browser, or they will be lost.

Accessibility Tools

Several tools are available to help you better interact with the text:

  1. The Translate tool lets you translate the document into 40 different languages
  2. The Font Size tool allows you to increase or decrease the document's font size. The change will persist throughout your session.
  3. The Listen tool provides text-to-speech audio. The text will be highlighted as the content is read aloud. You can also download an MP3 for future listening.

Quick Send

The quick send area gives you easy access to the most popular tools. Click on the corresponding icons to:

  1. Send to Google Drive
  2. Send to Microsoft OneDrive
  3. Email the document
  4. Download a PDF

Table of Contents

To view another article from the same volume, click or tap Table of Contents. To go to a different volume (if available), click or tap the publication title.

Book View

Click or tap Book View to browse the full book. Clicking on Download from this view will download a PDF of the article or chapter that is currently displayed.

If your library has opted to show the eBook view as the default view, this link will display as Text View. Clicking on Text View will display the HTML view.

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Google Drive Integration

Click on the Google Sign In link at the top of the screen to sign into your Google account.

Send to Google Drive

When you find a document that is useful to you, choose Send To from the toolbar and select Google Drive. If you haven't already logged into your Google account, you will be prompted to do so at this step. You will receive a confirmation that your document was saved to Google Drive.

Go to Google Drive to find your document. It will be saved in a new folder named after the product you're using.

You can also download a summary of your Highlights and Notes from the Highlights and Notes page by using the Send To tool and selecting Google Drive. If you haven't already logged into your Google account, you'll be prompted to do so at this step.

Google Classroom

Instructors using Google Classroom may share content with their students via the Classroom plugin. To post content to Google Classroom, click the green Google Classroom icon at the top of every page, next to the Google sign-in option.

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Highlights and Notes

The Highlights and Notes screen displays highlights and notes from articles during your current session.

TIP Click or tap Labels in the toolbar to create a legend for your highlights. You can label each color you've used for highlighting text and click save to create the legend.

TIP Before closing the product or your browser, be sure to send, download, or print your Highlights and Notes, or they will be lost.

Return to the Document

To view the highlighted text in its original context, click or tap the article title.

TIP When viewing a highlighted document, here's how to find and jump to each highlighted section:
  1. In the toolbar, select Highlights and Notes (number)
  2. In the pop-up, select the highlighted section that you want to skip to in the document
  3. Optional: Click or tap View All Highlights and Notes to return to the Highlights and Notes screen

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List of Illustrations

You can jump directly to pages that contain some kind of image using the List of Illustrations screen.

NOTE Due to copyright restrictions, some images cannot be reproduced in this resource.

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Listen to Documents

To hear a document read aloud, click or tap Listen to expand the player and begin playback.

Change the Settings

On the Listen player, you can adjust the reading speed and customize other Settings. By default, the text is highlighted as it is being read.

Download the Document as an Audio File

To download an audio file of the document, use the Download MP3 tool on the Listen player.

Listen to Part of the Document

  1. Select the text that you want to hear read (ignore the Highlight pop-up)
  2. Click or tap Listen

TIP To reset the player, close the player (click or tap the Close Player arrows) or refresh the page. You can then select a different portion of the text or listen to the entire document.

The amount of selected text that the audio player will read aloud depends on your web browser and operating system.

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More Like This and Related Subjects

More Like This

While viewing an article, More Like This suggestions recommend potential articles of interest. Recommendations are based on the article viewed and pull from content within the product. Clicking the See More button jumps the user to the full list of suggested articles.

In-text Recommendations

Within the body of the document, additional recommendations may be displayed as hyperlinks. These targeted suggestions are based on the context of the document and the term that is linked.

Related Subjects

Related Subjects displays the subjects used for indexing an article. Clicking on a subject delivers additional articles indexed with the same subject.

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Reading and Content Levels

Reading and content levels help users find ebooks that are appropriate for their reading level. All of these options are configurable in Gale Admin.

Reading Levels

Reading level information is displayed for select titles. The inclusion of reading levels depends upon their availability from the publisher. Three reading level systems are available: The Lexile® Framework for Reading, Accelerated Reader, and Guided Reading Levels.

Reading levels display as part of the article citation on the search results page and on a book’s About this Publication page. Users can limit their search results to a particular reading level value or range by using the available search limiters in the sidebar. Reading level search options are also included on the Advanced Search page.

Lexile Framework

Lexile measures are determined based on a book's complexity and looks at factors such as sentence length and vocabulary range.

Lexile codes provide additional information about a publication, such as whether it’s intended for beginning readers (BR) or if it has a lower reading level but may be of high interest to a broader audience (HL).

Lexile codes and Lexile measures display as a single value but are not dependent upon each other (not every Lexile measure will have a code and vice versa).

Lexile measures are assigned by MetaMetrics®. Additional information about the Lexile Framework is available at: https://www.Lexile.com/.

Accelerated Reader (ATOS)

Accelerated Reader book levels (ATOS) indicate the difficulty of a book, considering factors such as vocabulary and sentence complexity.

Interest levels indicate the target grade levels for a publication, based on the book’s actual content.

Points are calculated using a book’s word count and ATOS level. Points indicate what a student will earn on a quiz for a particular title. Points are displayed only on a book’s About this Publication page.

Accelerated Reader values are assigned by Renaissance Learning. Additional information on Accelerated Reader is available at: http://www.renaissance.com/.

Guided Reading Level (GRL)

Guided Reading Levels are single-letter values and are determined using the Fountas & Pinnell system, which considers elements such as genre, content, themes, vocabulary, and more.

Additional information is available at: http://www.fountasandpinnell.com/.

Content Levels

Content levels are assigned based on a publication's target audience and are assigned to all articles within that publication. There are five levels, ranging from Level One to Level Five:

  1. Level One: Lower elementary content; may also correspond to a Lexile measure less than 500L
  2. Level Two: Upper elementary content; may also correspond to a Lexile measure of 501L-850L
  3. Level Three: Middle school content; may also correspond to a Lexile measure of 851L-1100L
  4. Level Four: High school or general audience content; may also correspond to a Lexile measure of 1101L-1300L
  5. Level Five: Academic or advanced content; may also correspond to a Lexile measure of 1301L and up

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Sample Bibliographic Citations: APA 6th Edition

Here are some examples of how to cite sources using the American Psychological Association (APA) 6th Edition style.

NOTE These examples cite a variety of sources. Not all of these sources may be available in this resource.

Magazines

Palmer, S. (2009, August). Smart, healthy eating on a budget--it's within your reach. Environmental Nutrition, 32(8), 1. Retrieved from http://include-website-address
Patterns in Mars crater floors give picture of drying lakes. (2009, September 20). Space Daily. Retrieved from http://include-website-address

Academic Journals

Bailey, W. C., Erwin, S., Feinstein, R., Gerald, L. B., Hains, C., & Hemstreet, M. P. (2006). Outcomes for a comprehensive school-based asthma management program. Journal of School Health, 76 (6), 291. Retrieved from http://include-website-address
Betz, L. W. (2008). Keats and the charm of words: making sense of the Eve of St. Agnes. Studies in Romanticism, 47(3), 299. Retrieved from http://include-website-address

News

Ellis, R. (2009, August 2). The paradise that she found: New Mexico inspired Georgia O'Keeffe. Artist's legacy visible in community she called home for decades. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution [Atlanta, GA], p. E1. Retrieved from http://include-website-address
Gold seekers returning from the Yukon gold country to fight for Old Glory. (1898, April 27). Denver Evening Post [Denver, CO], p. 10. Retrieved from http://include-website-address

Broadcast Media

A 100-year-old granny to take parachute plunge. (2009, December 21). Morning Edition. Retrieved from http://include-website-address
Four astronauts discuss their mission at the International Space Station. (2008, November 23). NBC Nightly News. Retrieved from http://include-website-address

Books

City planning. In T. Carson & M. Bonk (Eds), Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. Detroit: Gale, 1999. Retrieved from http://include-website-address
Hornbuckle, A., & Manning, M. (2003). Auto racing: the Indy 500 (1910s). In J. S. Baughman, V. Bondi, R. Layman, T. McConnell, & V. Tompkins (Eds.), American Decades. Detroit: Gale. Retrieved from http://include-website-address
Marsinko, A., Zawacki, W., & Roach, D., II. (2008). Forests. In G. A. Goreham (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Rural America: The Land and People (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 411-414). Millerton, NY: Grey House Publishing. Retrieved from http://include-website-address
Morley, I. (2007). City beautiful movement. In D. Goldfield (Ed.), Encyclopedia of American Urban History (Vol. 1, pp. 150-152). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Reference. Retrieved from http://include-website-address

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Sample Bibliographic Citations: Chicago 17th Edition

Here are some examples of how to cite sources using the Chicago Manual of Style (CMoS) 17th Edition style.

NOTE These examples cite a variety of sources. Not all of these sources may be available in this resource.

Magazines

Palmer, Sharon. "Smart, Healthy Eating on a Budget─It's within Your Reach." Environmental Nutrition, August 2009, 1+. General OneFile (accessed May 23, 2016). http://include-website-address.
"Patterns in Mars Crater Floors Give Picture of Drying Lakes." Space Daily, September 20, 2009. General OneFile (accessed June 1, 2016). http://include-website-address.

Academic Journals

Betz, Laura Wells. "Keats and the Charm of Words: Making Sense of the Eve of St. Agnes." Studies in Romanticism 47, no. 3 (2008): 299+. Academic OneFile (accessed December 15, 2015). http://include-website-address.
Gerald, Lynn B., David Redden, Angelina R. Wittich, Coralie Hains, Anne Turner-Henson, Mary P. Hemstreet, Ronald Feinstein, Sue Erwin, and William C. Bailey. "Outcomes for a Comprehensive School-Based Asthma Management Program." Journal of School Health 76, no. 6 (2006): 291+. Academic OneFile (accessed September 3, 2016). http://include-website-address.

News

Ellis, Ralph. "The Paradise That She Found: New Mexico Inspired Georgia O'Keeffe. Artist's Legacy Visible in Community She Called Home for Decades." Atlanta Journal-Constitution [Atlanta, GA], August 2, 2009, E1. General Reference Center GOLD (accessed April 2, 2016). http://include-website-address.
"Gold Seekers Returning from the Yukon Gold Country to Fight for Old Glory." Weekly Los Angeles Mirror, April 27, 1898, 10. World Scholar: Latin America & the Caribbean (accessed October 18, 2015). http://include-website-address.
"Green Drinks Put Environment on the Menu." Kamloops This Week [Kamloops, British Columbia], September 27, 2008, 7. Canadian Periodicals Index Quarterly (accessed January 3, 2016). http://include-website-address.

Broadcast Media

"A 100-Year-Old Granny to Take Parachute Plunge." Morning Edition, December 21, 2009. General OneFile (accessed February 5, 2016). http://include-website-address.
"Week in Politics: Presidential Candidates Outline Foreign Policy Goals." All Things Considered, September 9, 2016. Student Resources in Context (accessed September 23, 2016). http://include-website-address.

Books

Edelman, Rob, Robert E. Schnakenberg, Tina Gianoulis, and Tom Pendergast. "1910s: Sports and Games." In Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th- and 21st-Century America, 2nd ed., edited by Cynthia Johnson and Lawrence W. Baker, 215-227. Vol. 1, 1900s-1910s. Detroit: UXL, 2012. Student Resources in Context (accessed March 9, 2016). http://include-website-address.
Kuskowski, Alex. "Backyard Camping Essentials." In Cool Backyard Camping: Great Things to Do in the Great Outdoors, 6-7. Cool Great Outdoors. Minneapolis, MN: Checkerboard Library, 2016. Gale Virtual Reference Library (accessed September 26, 2016). http://include-website-address.
Morley, Ian. "City Beautiful Movement." In Encyclopedia of American Urban History, edited by David Goldfield, 150-152. Vol. 1. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Reference, 2007. Gale Virtual Reference Library (accessed August 12, 2016). http://include-website-address.
"Urban Renewal." In Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History, 2nd ed., edited by Thomas Riggs, 1393-1395. Vol. 3. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2015. Student Resources in Context (accessed July 5, 2016). http://include-website-address.

Plays

Sachs, Hans. "Raising the Devil," translated by W. H. H. Chambers. In The Drama, 171. Vol. 10, Greek Drama. The Athenian Society, 1903. LitFinder (accessed May 7, 2016). http://include-website-address.

Historical Monographs

Jay, William. A Review of the Causes and Consequences of the Mexican War. Boston; Philadelphia; New York: Benjamin B. Mussey & Co.; Uriah Hunt & CO.; M. W. Dodd, 1849. Sabin Americana, 1500-1926 (accessed September 26, 2016). http://include-website-address.
King, Richard John, and John Murray. Handbook for Travellers in Sussex: With Maps and Plans, 5th ed. London: John Murray, 1893. Nineteenth Century Collections Online (accessed July 17, 2016). http://include-website-address.
Mason, Bertha. The Story of the Women's Suffrage Movement. London; Manchester: Sherratt & Hughes, 1912. Nineteenth Century Collections Online (accessed September 2, 2016). http://include-website-address.

Historical Manuscripts

General Correspondence - Admiral Richard E. Byrd, 1933. 1933. MS Box 130, Folder 7, National Aeronautical Association Archives: Series 5: Administrative Records, 1920-1980. National Air and Space Museum, Archives Division. Smithsonian Collections Online (accessed March 26, 2016). http://include-website-address.
Japanese Americans, 1941-1944. 1941-1944. MS, Missionary Files: Methodist Episcopal Church Missionary Correspondence, 1912-1949: Japan. General Commission on Archives & History, United Methodist Church. Nineteenth Century Collections Online (accessed April 30, 2016). http://include-website-address.

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Sample Bibliographic Citations: MLA 9th Edition

Here are some examples of how to cite sources using the Modern Language Association (MLA) 9th Edition style.

NOTE These examples cite a variety of sources. Not all of these sources may be available in this resource.

Magazines

Palmer, Sharon. "Smart, healthy eating on a budget--it's within your reach." Environmental Nutrition, vol. 32, no. 8, Aug. 2009, p. 1+. Gale In Context: College, http://include-website-address. Accessed 19 Aug. 2021.
"Patterns In Mars Craters Give Picture Of Drying Lakes." Space Daily, 16 Sept. 2009. Gale General OneFile Custom, http://include-website-address. Accessed 19 Aug. 2021.

Academic Journals

Betz, Laura Wells. "Keats and the charm of words: making sense of the Eve of St. Agnes." Studies in Romanticism, vol. 47, no. 3, 2008, p. 299+. Gale In Context: College, http://include-website-address. Accessed 19 Aug. 2021.
Coelho, Ana Carla Carvalho, et al. "The impacts of educational asthma interventions in schools: a systematic review of the literature." Canadian Respiratory Journal, annual 2016. Gale Academic OneFile, http://include-website-address. Accessed 19 Aug. 2021.

News

"Leading Online Travel Agency, Online Republic, Launches AI Chatbot 'Wheelie' To Support International Growth." Scoop Media, 26 July 2021, p. NA. Gale OneFile: News, http://include-website-address. Accessed 19 Aug. 2021.
"Farmer to talk about regenerative agriculture Aug. 7." Daily Herald [Arlington Heights, IL], 5 Aug. 2019, p. 2. Gale OneFile: Health and Medicine, http://include-website-address. Accessed 19 Aug. 2021.
"HIGH SCHOOL FOOTBALL SCHEDULE." Atlanta Journal-Constitution [Atlanta, GA], 13 Sept. 2019, p. C10. Gale OneFile: Business, http://include-website-address. Accessed 19 Aug. 2021.

Broadcast Media

"The 'Babe Ruth' Of Ice Cream Gives The Scoop On His 71-Year Career." Morning Edition, 27 July 2018. Gale OneFile: Contemporary Women's Issues, http://include-website-address. Accessed 19 Aug. 2021.
"Hark! Glow-In-The-Dark Shark Sparks Biology Landmark." All Things Considered, 12 Mar. 2021. Gale In Context: High School, http://include-website-address. Accessed 19 Aug. 2021.

Books

Edelman, Rob, et al. "1910s: Sports and Games." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th- and 21st-Century America, edited by Cynthia Johnson and Lawrence W. Baker, 2nd ed., vol. 1: 1900s-1910s, UXL, 2012, pp. 215-227. Gale eBooks, http://include-website-address. Accessed 19 Aug. 2021.
"Supply, Demand, and Equilibrium." 21st Century Economics: A Reference Handbook, edited by Rhona C. Free, vol. 1, SAGE Reference, 2010, pp. 69-78. 21st Century Reference Series. Gale eBooks, http://include-website-address. Accessed 19 Aug. 2021.
Klepeis, Alicia. "Photosynthesis." Leaves, Rourke Educational Media, 2018, pp. 16-20. A Closer Look at Plants. Gale eBooks, http://include-website-address. Accessed 19 Aug. 2021.
"City Beautiful: The Rise of Urban Planning." American Eras, vol. 8: Development of the Industrial United States, 1878-1899, Gale, 1997, pp. 51-52. Gale eBooks, http://include-website-address. Accessed 19 Aug. 2021.

Plays

Chekhov, Anton. "The Three Sisters." Translated by Julius West. Plays by Anton Tchekoff: 2nd Series, by Anton Chekhov, translated by Julius West, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1916, p. 129. Gale Literature: LitFinder, http://include-website-address. Accessed 19 Aug. 2021.

Historical Monographs

Jay, William. A Review of the Causes and Consequences of the Mexican War. Benjamin B. Mussey & Co.; Uriah Hunt & CO.; M. W. Dodd, 1849. Sabin Americana, 1500-1926, http://include-website-address. Accessed 26 Sept. 2016.
King, Richard John, and John Murray. Handbook for Travellers in Sussex: With Maps and Plans. 5th ed., John Murray, 1893. Nineteenth Century Collections Online, http://include-website-address. 17 July 2016.
Mason, Bertha. The Story of the Women's Suffrage Movement. Sherratt & Hughes, 1912. Nineteenth Century Collections Online, http://include-website-address. Accessed 2 Sept. 2016.

Historical Manuscripts

General Correspondence - Admiral Richard E. Byrd, 1933. 1933. MS Box 130, Folder 7, National Aeronautical Association Archives: Series 5: Administrative Records, 1920-1980. National Air and Space Museum, Archives Division. Smithsonian Collections Online, http://include-website-address. Accessed 26 Mar. 2016.
Japanese Americans, 1941-1944. 1941-1944. MS, Missionary Files: Methodist Episcopal Church Missionary Correspondence, 1912-1949: Japan. General Commission on Archives & History, United Methodist Church. Nineteenth Century Collections Online, http://include-website-address. Accessed 30 Apr. 2016.

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Search Results

Your search results consist of individual chapters and articles from different books.

Search Within Your Results

To search your complete set of results, use the Search Within filter option.

Filter Your Results

Ways to filter, or limit, your results are available in the sidebar. Results may be narrowed by subject, publication title, document type, and more. On a phone, tap Search Tools to find the filters.

Analyze Your Results

Desktop and tablet users can use Topic Finder to visualize their results. The Topic Finder link is in the sidebar.
  • Topic Finder: Turn your search results into a graphical representation that shows which words and subjects are found most often in your results

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Subject Guide

The Subject Guide is like a thesaurus for finding the right search terms, especially when starting your research. Type in a topic and it will suggest preferred spellings and related terms. You can optionally limit your search using the More Options.

Why Use the Subject Guide?

  • To find content about a topic, as opposed to mere mentions
  • To narrow a broad topic
  • To discover new terms to research

See also: Subject Terms

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Subject Terms

When doing a Subject Guide search, the Subject Terms page allows you to select a term and get results (the number of results is shown). Or you can continue browsing subject terms to refine your search by using the Subdivisions and Related Subjects links.

Subdivisions

Subdivisions divide a topic into standard categories. For example, given the topic Aircraft accidents, are you interested in Statistics? Investigations? Forecasts and trends?

Related Subjects

The related subject terms are organized into the following categories. For example, for the topic of Aircraft accidents, here are some examples of related terms:

  • Narrower: Such as a specific airplane crash
  • Broader: Such as Transportation accidents in general
  • Related: Suggests slightly different topics, such as aircraft safety

You can filter the related subject terms using the Show Related Subjects By drop-down list.

See also: Subject Guide

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Table of Contents

The Table of Contents is one of several screens that help you navigate a book. Expand sections and then click or tap on any of the front or back matter pages or an article title to view the content.
Additional screens that you can access from the Table of Contents may include About this Series, About this Publication, Book Index, and List of Illustrations.

Multi-Volume Books

For multi-volume books, the Table of Contents page initially displays the contents of the first volume. To select a different volume, use the Choose a volume pull-down list.

Search Within the Book

Use the Search Within Publication option to search within the publication.

When the book is part of a multi-volume or a serial publication, you can search by selecting one of the following options:
  • all volumes: Cross-searches all available volumes
  • within this volume: Searches only within the currently-displayed volume
When other editions of the book are available, you can search by selecting one of the following options:
  • all editions: Cross-searches all available editions or supplements
  • all volumes in this edition: When an edition comprises multiple volumes, this option cross-searches all available volumes within the edition
  • within this volume: Searches only within the currently-displayed volume

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Topic Finder

Topic Finder offers a visual way to search. Use Topic Finder to discover the context of your search term and uncover hidden connections. The diagram can also be used to find additional search terms that are related your topic.

Create a Topic Finder Diagram

Topic Finder is located on the Advanced Search Page. Instructions are displayed to explain how you can visualize results and link to documents.

Use Topic Finder to Visualize Your Search Results

You can turn your search results into a Topic Finder diagram by selecting Topic Finder from the search limiter sidebar. The diagram displays the words and subjects that are found most often in the text of your results. You can view the diagram as a Wheel or as Tiles. Clicking or tapping on the diagram displays the corresponding document titles to the right.

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Search Tips

Want to improve your searches? Create a complex query? These Search Tips provide details and sample searches. Note that the examples used here illustrate generalized concepts and are not specific to any one Gale resource.

Search Tip Contents


AND, OR, NOT

Use Boolean Operators to Refine Your Search

Boolean Operators (AND, OR, NOT) can be used to tell the search engine more specifically what you want it to do. These are also known as "logical" operators. The order of operations is: NOT, AND, OR.

Use AND to narrow your search

If you put the word AND between your search terms, that tells the search engine to find only the documents that include all of the terms you connected with the term AND.

  • children and travel finds documents that contain both terms, children and travel, anywhere within the searched text.

Use OR to broaden your search

If you put the word OR between your search terms, that tells the search engine to find documents with any of the terms you connected with the term OR. This will get you get more results than if you connected your terms with AND.

  • postmortem or autopsy finds documents that contain either postmortem or autopsy or both. At least one of your terms must be present. OR is good to use when searching for variant spellings or synonymous terms.

Use NOT to exclude words

If you put the word NOT between two search terms, that tells the search engine to find documents with the first term as long as they don’t have the second term.

  • "benjamin franklin" not bache finds documents that contain the term Benjamin Franklin, but that do not contain the term Bache. This would include documents that mention Benjamin Franklin, but not his great-grandson, Benjamin Franklin Bache.

Note: Operators do not need to be capitalized. If you want to include the operators as search terms, enclose them in quotation marks (for example: "black and white photographs"). All examples are illustrative only and not specific to any one Gale resource.


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Proximity

Use Proximity Operators to Define Distance Between Terms

Proximity operators (Nn, Wn) can be used to tell the search engine how closely terms must be to each other within a document. They operate like the AND operator in that both terms must be found.

Use Nn to find terms when order doesn't matter

The Nn (near) operator finds terms n words apart in either direction of the first term.

  • memory n5 repressed finds documents that contain memory and repressed within five or fewer words of each other.

Use Wn to find terms after the first

The Wn (within) operator finds the second term within n words after the first.

  • shared w3 values finds documents that contain the term values within three or fewer words after the term shared.

Note: Proximity operators can only be used between two search terms, like fleas n10 dogs or fleas n10 cats. They cannot be used between a term and a nested expression, like fleas n10 (dogs or cats). All examples are illustrative only and not specific to any one Gale resource.


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Nesting

Use Nesting Operators to Define Complex Searches

You can use parentheses ( ) in order to specify the order of operations and create complex searches. The order of operations is: parentheses, NOT, AND, OR.

Nesting isn't always needed

Understanding the order of operations is important to determining when parentheses are needed.

  • milk OR dark AND chocolate finds documents with either milk OR both dark AND chocolate because of the order of operations.

Nesting can help with readability

Adding parentheses to a search, even when not strictly necessary, can help make it clear exactly what you want from the search.

  • milk OR (dark AND chocolate) is the same as without parenthesis because of the order of operations.

Nesting lets you control the order of operations

Without parentheses, the AND operator will always go first. Adding parentheses can change your search to evaluate other operators first.

  • (milk OR dark) AND chocolate finds documents that mention milk chocolate OR dark chocolate

Nesting lets you add complexity to your search

You can add multiple sets of parentheses to further define searches.

  • (milk OR dark OR white) AND (chocolate OR cocoa) finds documents that mention any of the following:
    • milk AND chocolate
    • milk AND cocoa
    • dark AND chocolate
    • dark AND cocoa
    • white AND chocolate
    • white AND cocoa

Note: All examples are illustrative only and not specific to any one Gale resource.


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Quotation Marks

Use Quotation Marks for Specific Phrases

Use quotations to ensure the search engine finds documents with all the terms in the exact order specified. Using quotations will also ignore any special characters or operators found within.

Without quotes, each term is considered separately

Understanding the order of operations is important to determining when parentheses are needed.

  • wage gap finds documents with both words, but not necessarily together.

With quotes, the whole phrase will be considered as one

Understanding the order of operations is important to determining when parentheses are needed.

  • "wage gap" finds documents with wage and gap next to each other in order.

Use quotes to treat operators as regular terms

By default, the search engine will interpret certain terms as operators, like AND, OR, NOT. If you want to ensure your terms are searched as regular terms, add quotes around them.

  • "to be or not to be" will find this exact phrase whereas without the quotes, the search wouldn't work because OR and NOT are considered operators by default.

Note: All examples are illustrative only and not specific to any one Gale resource.


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Wildcards

Use Wildcard Characters to Search on Multiple Similar Terms

Using wildcard characters (*, ?, !) allow you to only type part of your search term to search for multiple terms. This is also known as truncation.

Use the Asterisk (*) for the widest search

The asterisk stands for any number of characters, including none.

  • carib* finds: carib, caribs, caribbean, caribe, caribou, etc.

Use the Question Mark (?) for specific words of known length

The question mark stands for exactly one character.

  • psych????y finds: psychiatry, psychology but would not find: psychotherapy.

Use the Exclamation Point (!) for specific word variations

The exclamation point stands for one or zero characters.

  • colo!r finds: color, colour.

Note: A search must include at least 3 leading characters before a wildcard can be used. All examples are illustrative only and not specific to any one Gale resource.


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Ignored

Ignored Characters Do Not Affect Your Search

The search engine ignores some characters and will act as if those characters were not included in your search.

Capitalization is ignored

Searches are not case sensitive.

  • harry potter is the same search as Harry Potter

Most symbols and punctuation are ignored

Searches will ignore symbols and punctuation, except for periods and apostrophes. Some ignored characters are replaced with a space, like slash (/), while others are removed, like period (.). In certain cases, search will recognize apostrophes used in contractions or in names and periods in abbreviations.

  • U.S.A. is the same as USA
  • 1/2 is the same as 1 2
  • occam's razor is not the same as occams razor

Gale does not apply a "Stop Words" list

Stop words are common terms that may not add meaning to a search, like "the", "a", "an", "it", and "of". Some databases will remove these "stop words" from your search, but Gale databases leave them in.

  • the hunt for red october is not the same as hunt red october

Note: All examples are illustrative only and not specific to any one Gale resource.


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