All program and operational decisions made in an organization stem from the philosophy, beliefs, and vision that are its reasons for being in the first place. These, in turn, are rooted in basic values that are often assumed, yet rarely articulated.
Identifying the values about volunteering held by your organization is a worthwhile exercise. It uncovers what executives, frontline employees, and volunteers themselves think about why volunteers are involved at all. It points the way for creating meaningful volunteer assignments and provides a framework for working together.
Discussing values about volunteering also puts civic engagement into a broader social context. It's easy to get so caught up in the daily how-to's of managing a volunteer program that we forget volunteering is bigger than our one setting or even this one point in time.
Here are a set of volunteering values to consider. Do you believe these? What else do you believe is fundamental to understanding volunteer involvement?
1. Participation by citizens is vital to making democratic communities work. Participatory democracy is based on the value that it is a good thing for citizens to participate in running their communities and in making sure that things happen the way they want. This is the heart of volunteerism and is why, in a free society, volunteering is a right, not a privilege. (This is not to be confused with the parallel right of any agency or individual to refuse the services of a prospective volunteer.)
Volunteering generates a sense of ownership. People who get involved feel connected to others and are affected by the outcome of their "sweat equity." It's the complete opposite of the attitude "that doesn't concern me."
2. Volunteers are more than free labor First, volunteers are not "free." There are costs to an agency for their support and tools, as well as out-of-pocket expenses incurred by the individuals donating time.
Most important, when placed in the right positions, volunteers bring a value-added component that actually changes or is lost when a paid employee does the same work. For example, legislators and funders are more receptive to the advocacy of someone not on the organization's payroll--the perception of credibility that comes from lack of self-interest. Similarly, some clients such as children or probationers may feel that paid workers see them as "just someone on their caseload," while a volunteer is a "friend."
The point is not that volunteers are better than employees. It's that sometimes their status as volunteers can provide a useful difference. Therefore, volunteers are vital to an organization and would be an asset even if there were all the money in the world to pay more staff.
3. Equal respect is due to work that is volunteered and work that is paid. Regardless of the perceptions just discussed, the value of work is determined by its intrinsic quality and impact. Work done by employees does not automatically have a higher value than that done by volunteers (and is also not of lesser value). The contributions of paid and volunteer workers are compatible, collaborative and integrated.
Even more important, the skills and dedication of the person doing the work are not determined by the presence or absence of a paycheck. There are extraordinary volunteers and extraordinary employees. The potential for excellence always exists.
4. Volunteer involvement is a balance of three sets of rights: those of the client/recipient; those of the volunteer; and those of the agency. Despite wrangling over employee and volunteer points of view, each situation defines which perspective takes precedence. In most cases, the bottom line should be what is best for the recipient of service. But there are also agency and other long-term considerations. The key is not to pre-suppose that one perspective always outweighs the others.
5. Volunteers, as citizens of a free society, have the right to be mavericks. The way that genuine social change occurs is that a few pioneering volunteers are willing to be ostracized (even jailed) for their actions. While an agency has the right to refuse a placement to a volunteer, that individual has the right to continue to pursue the cause or issue as a private citizen. In fact, that's exactly what leads to the founding of new organizations and institutions, changes in the law, and even changes in cultural mores (just consider how MADD transformed attitudes about drinking and driving).
This right to see things differently also raises an ethical consideration in how we develop assignments for volunteers within our agencies. Do we expect to keep volunteers always "under control?"
6. Volunteering is a neutral act--a strategy for getting things done. Volunteering is not inherently on the side of the angels, nor is it an end unto itself. It is a means to accomplishing a goal and is done by people on both sides of an issue. Volunteering is a method that allows people to stand up for their beliefs.
7. The best volunteering is an exchange in which the giver and the recipient both benefit. Volunteering should not be confused with charity or noblesse oblige--those who have so much, give to those who have so little. Because volunteering puts the time donor directly into the service delivered, the impact of the activity reverberates back to the volunteer in ways much more complex than writing a donation check. Further, when volunteers also benefit from their service, they have even more motivation to do a good job, which means better service to the recipient, and an upward spiral of reinforcement.
8. Volunteering empowers the people who do it. Volunteering empowers volunteers, both personally and politically. On the personal level, volunteering contributes to individual growth, self-esteem, sense of control, and ability to make a contribution to society. At the community level, the collective action of volunteers who share a commitment to a cause is extremely powerful-real clout for real change.
9. Volunteering is an equalizer. When people volunteer, it is often more important who they are as human beings than what they are on their resumes. In a volunteer role, people can rise to the level of their abilities regardless of their formal qualifications: teenagers can do adult-level work, those with life experience can contribute to client service without a master's degree, etc. Similarly, when running in a fundraising marathon, the corporate CEO and the school custodian are in-distinguishable, as are all members of a nonprofit board of directors who share the legal and fiduciary responsibilities of this position whether they are employed in professional capacities or represent grassroots perspectives.
10. Volunteering is inherently optimistic and future-oriented. No one gives time to a cause they feel will fail. In fact, the whole rationale for volunteering is to assure the success of a cause. So, while people may take a paying job that is relatively meaningless if the salary is enticing, the reward for volunteered service is accomplishment. This also means that people volunteer with a vision of the future, often in hopes of a better future in which a problem or disease will be conquered, communities will be safe and inclusive, and the world will be in harmony. This may sound terribly mushy (which may be why such a value is not expressed every day), but it is ultimately true.
Susan J. Ellis is president of Energize, a Philadelphia-based training, publishing and consulting firm specializing in volunteerism. She can be reached via email at email@example.com. Her Web site is www:energizeinc.com