Systematics of Vitaceae in South America (1)

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Date: Aug. 2007
From: Canadian Journal of Botany(Vol. 85, Issue 8)
Publisher: NRC Research Press
Document Type: Report
Length: 3,802 words
Lexile Measure: 1340L

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Abstract: In South America, the family Vitaceae is represented by 65 species divided into 2 genera: Cissus contains 64 species, whereas Vitis consists of only 1 species. Recent studies on the Neotropical Cissus reveal that with regard to species delimitation, trichome types and the morphology of fruits and seeds are more important than the traditionally used trichome density and leaf shape. Fifteen provisional species groups are recognized for South America, excluding one species whose grouping is uncertain. Future research in this area should incorporate other data (e.g., anatomical, histological, and molecular) to identify a subgeneric division in Cissus.

Resume : En Amerique du Sud, la famille des Vitaceae est representee par 65 especes divisees en deux groupes : Cissus incluant 64 especes et Vitis n'en contenant que de 1 espece. Des etudes recentes sur les Cissus neo-tropicaux revelent, qu'en termes de delimitations des especes, les types de trichomes et la morphologie des fruits et des graines sont plus importants que l'utilisation traditionnelle des formes des trichomes et des feuilles. On reconnaet provisoirement 15 groupes d'especes pour l'Amerique du Sud, excluant une espece incertaine. Les recherches futures devraient tenir compte de d'autres caracteristiques comme les donnees anatomiques, histologiques et moleculaires, afin de proposer une division subgenerique des Cissus.

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Introduction

The family Vitaceae includes 13-15 genera (Mabberley 1987). The subordinate taxa of Vitaceae are not easily delimited, although they are very easy to recognize as belonging to that family. As the first page of the classical monograph by Planchon states: "Rien de plus simple que de les definir comme famille; rien de plus difficile que de les repartir en genre ou sous-genres naturels". The classic generic limits were chiefly based on inflorescence position and nature, on nectariferous disk development, and the extension of its adnation to the ovary wall (Planchon 1887).

In the Neotropical region, species of Vitaceae are all lianas with leaf-opposed tendrils and inflorescences, a very useful character for family determination even in the absence of flowers or fruits. In the Neotropics, four genera occur naturally: (i) Ampelocissus Planch., (ii) Ampelopsis Michx., (iii) Cissus L., and (iv) Vitis L. In South America, only Vitis and Cissus are reported (nevertheless, see comments on some possibly misplaced Cissus species below).

Vitis is represented by Vitis tiliifolia Humb. & Bonpl. ex Roem. & Schult. This species is a Northern Hemisphere element, occurring from North America (Mexico) through Mesoamerica and from the Caribbean to Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, and Ecuador in high-altitude forests (Lombardi 2001).

Cissus is the largest genus of the Vitaceae, with ca. 350 species spread through Africa, the Americas, southern Asia, Australia, and Papuasia (Mabberley 1987). A recent study on the diversity of Neotropical Cissus accounted for 75 species, 62 of which occur in South America (Lombardi 2000); however, five more species have since been described (Lombardi 2002, 2004, 2005), two probable new species have been located (J. A. Lombardi, unpublished data, 2005), and another species from Peru is being described (H.W. Beltran, personal communication, 2003).

The South...

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A169825738