Byline: Khalique Ahmed and Muhammad Saeed Awan
Abstract This review and analysis has been focused on the major pulse chickpea Cicer arietinum L. Walp in order to provide discussion confined to only the major insect pests of this legume crop, those causing significant and frequent yield loss. Our intention is to bring forward and report the major efforts made in combating insect pest infesting chickpea in South and South-East Asia .The poor masses in South Asian part of the world can not afford animal protein, therefore, the only commodities which could supplement protein requirement in their diet are the only pulses which contains sufficient amount of proteins and falls within purchasing capability of poor people. In author's view, an ever-growing population needs at least a proportionate increase in consumption of vegetable protein, and other nutritional requirements provided by food legumes including chickpea so as to balance a cereal-based diet.
Scientists working in various institutions in this region undertook extensive studies and research to develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Integrated Crop Management (ICM) in order to reduce chickpea grain yield losses. This review highlights the IPM efforts on the use of Chemicals, eco-friendly approaches (use of natural pathogens, plants materials, agronomic practices and insect parasitoids etc.). Thus insect pest management options are viewed from a systems perspective to the farming enterprise. Examples of successful IPM approaches operating in farmers' fields have been sought, for their possible extrapolation to other situations. Admittedly, there are few examples of direct farmer involvement in evolution of IPM packages for food legume crops including chickpea.
However, we do recognize the need to involve farmers themselves in the evolution and evaluation of IPM strategies and we hope that this assembly of information relating to IPM of chickpea will facilitate increased farmer-participatory IPM activities.
Keywords: Integrated pest management, integrated crop management, South Asia, natural pathogens, agronomic practices, Cicer arietinum
Chickpea, Cicer arietinum L. Walp is an important grain legume crop of South Asia, with the region accounting for about 87% of the world area of the crop. The crop is normally grown rainfed in the postrainy season (Oct-Mar) of the subtropics of South Asia with minimal inputs of fertilizer or pesticides. Chickpea is normally grown with and is being increasingly relegated to marginal lands, due to its displacement from irrigated and better water- endowed lands by higher and more stable yielding crops such as wheat (Kelley et al., 2000). The major constraints leading to low and unstable yields of chickpea are drought stress, foliar diseases (e.g. ascochyta blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labr.
Chickpea can be host to a wide range of insect pests (Reed et al., 1987; Ranga Rao and Shanower, 1999) but acid exudation from above- ground plant parts probably acts as a partial deterrent to many of these (Reed et al., 1987). By far the most economically important insect pest of chickpea is the pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera Huebn. Substantial yield losses due to this pest have been reported across South Asia....