Byline: Stephanie L. Osborn (1,2), Eric A. Kurzrock (1,2)
Bladder; Urothelium; Differentiation; Human embryonic stem cells; Induced pluripotent stem cells; Grafts
As bladder reconstruction strategies evolve, a feasible and safe source of transplantable urothelium becomes a major consideration for patients with advanced bladder disease, particularly cancer. Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), are attractive candidates from which to derive urothelium as they renew and proliferate indefinitely in vitro and fulfill the non-autologous and/or non-urologic criteria, respectively, that is required for many patients. This review presents the latest advancements in differentiating urothelium from pluripotent stem cells in vitro in the context of current bladder tissue engineering strategies.
(1) Department of Urology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, 4860 Y Street, Suite 3500, Sacramento, CA, 95817, USA
(2) Stem Cell Program, Institute for Regenerative Cures, University of California, Davis Medical Center, 2921 Stockton Blvd, Suite 1630, Sacramento, CA, 95817, USA
Registration Date: 10/10/2014
Online Date: 11/11/2014
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Regenerative Medicine