Byline: Serkan Sayiner and Hilal Karagul
The aim of this study was to establish the current state of blood selenium and vitamin E levels in heifers, together with roughage selenium levels in eight livestock regions of Northern Cyprus from two different seasons. We also evaluated whether these concentrations were adequate. Heifer blood, feed samples including concentrate feed or roughage were analysed. It was found that there are significant seasonal differences for each region and regional differences in each season were due to different feeding conditions. Heifer blood selenium and plasma vitamin E levels were generally found within adequate ranges in all regions for both seasons. We suggest that feed supplements containing selenium should be added for the Iskele region during the winter months. For the Morphou region we advise that feed supplements should be added during summer due to low levels of selenium found in roughage
Selenium, Vitamin E, Feed, Heifer, Northern Cyprus
In the past, Selenium (Se) toxicity attracted much attention, however in subsequent years, through extensive research, metabolic diseases were found to be associated with a deficiency of Se, such as white muscle disease in lambs and calves (Whanger et al., 1977), exudative diathesis (Hassan, 1986) and pancreatic degeneration in poultry (Thompson and Scott, 1969). It's also known that Se has also play critical role in maintenance of pregnancy, uterine health, fertility (Arechiga et al., 1998; Kamada et al., 2014), meat and milk yields and immune functions (Hall et al., 2014).
The main source of Se is through the daily ingestion of food by living organisms and dietary intakes have been associated with a range of biochemical functions and diseases in animals. Se plays a particular role as selenocystein at active site of proteins (Pedrero and Madrid, 2009). Some well-known selenoproteins, in which Se is an essential trace element for their activity, are glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, iodothyronine deiodinase, selenoprotein P, selenoprotein W, selenoprotein N (Beckett and Arthur, 2005; Lescure et al., 1999; Richardson, 2005; Rotruck et al., 1973; Schomburg et al., 2004).
Research has shown that most areas of the world are poor of the intake of Se and metabolic diseases are seen as endemic in those areas due to Se deficiency. In the United States approximately two-thirds of dairy cows are reared in the areas where soils are poor in selenium and arid regions of Australia, the north-eastern China, South China, north of Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Nepal, Tibet, Central Africa, Pakistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo are known to be Se deficient (Hogan et al., 1993; Khan et al. 2005, 2012; Poppenga et al., 2012; Wichtel et al., 2004).
Se and vitamin E are functionally closely linked as the part of antioxidative system. Vitamin E is an essential dietary nutrient for the healthy development of animals. Deficiency in vitamin E is mostly observed in juvenile animals, and when combined with Se deficiency, more serious health problems can arise (Castellini et al., 2007). Vitamin E has physiological and biochemical roles including...