The present article advances a series of elements presented previously in our publications, illustrating the causes that led to the failure of the socialist movement in modern Romania. Practically, the Romanian socialists were grouped in two tendencies, one of them constructive-national and the other revolutionary-anarchist, influenced externally. The particularities of the society, economy, social categories from Romania, the active involvement of the Church in the cultural, social life and even the education of the Romanians, made the workers and the peasants to not become too close to the socialists, who were declaring adversaries of the religion, considered a form of medieval, and even bourgeois domination. The attitude of the revolutionary-anarchist line, presented through its representatives from the Tsarist Russia, was speculated by the liberals and the conservatives who, on one side were regulating it for the interest of their limited electorate (the vote was based on qualification), and, on the other side, they were attracting the progressive socialist elements towards these parties, throwing the image of anarchy and disorder on the radicals. The Romanian historiography, in different ages, has presented differently the image of the socialist movement from the modern Romania, leaving us, today, to attempt a unitary and objective image on it. Keywords: socialist movement; modern Romania; revolutionary tendency; national-constructive tendency; historiography; failure.