Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis Among Adolescents in Schools of Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh

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Publisher: Medknow Publications and Media Pvt. Ltd.
Document Type: Report
Length: 3,320 words
Lexile Measure: 1480L

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Byline: Monica. Chaudhry, Ishan. Prabhakar, Bhuvandeep. Gupta, Richa. Anand, Priyanka. Sehrawat, Sahil. Thakar

Introduction: Drinking water is one of the major sources of fluoride. India is one of those 24 countries where fluorosis is an important public health problem. When excess fluoride is ingested during the years of tooth calcification, it results in fluorosis. Aim: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis among adolescents in schools of Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 1318 students were examined for dental fluorosis through a stratified sampling technique from four blocks of Greater Noida. Dean’s Fluorosis Index was used to record dental fluorosis and information regarding the source of water till the age of 8 years, usage of fluoridated toothpaste before 2 years of age and other affected family members, which was obtained from their parents. Results: The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis in Greater Noida was found to be 21.0%. A very mild form of dental fluorosis was seen in 27.6% of the adolescents. The source of water consumed by the adolescent till the age of 8 years was found to be significantly associated with dental fluorosis (P = 0.001). Adolescents who consumed water from the hand pump were more likely to develop dental fluorosis. The reporting of an affected family member was seen to vary significantly with the relative score of dental fluorosis observed for that adolescent. The value of Community Fluorosis Index (CFI) was found to be 1.7. Conclusion: Dental fluorosis seemed to be a problem of medium public health significance in Greater Noida as suggested by the observed CFI, which was 1.7. The consumption of water from the handpump by majority of the population was associated with fluorosis.

Introduction

Dental fluorosis is a specific disturbance in tooth formation caused by excessive fluoride intake during the development of teeth.[sup][1] The degree of fluorosis, as well as plasma and bone fluoride levels, is directly related to the concentration of fluoride in drinking water.

Fluoride has always been known as a double-edged sword. When excess of fluoride is ingested during the years of tooth calcification, essentially during the first 7 years of life, it results in fluorosis. When mild or more severe forms of dental fluorosis are found prevalent in a community, steps should be taken to reduce fluoride ingestion during the ages of tooth development. Excessive levels of fluoride in the drinking water can lead to even more serious health problems than dental fluorosis, wherein it may progress to skeletal fluorosis. In its extreme form, skeletal fluorosis is a seriously debilitating disease. Because of excessive intake of fluoride in many parts of the world, skeletal fluorosis affects several millions of people today.[sup][1],[2]

Drinking water is a major source of fluoride in India. It affects the population of 20 states in India[sup][2] (fluoride level in drinking water >1.5 mg/L), and about 62 million people in India suffer from dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Out of these, six million are children below the age of 14 years. Groundwater is considered as the...

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A486139881