Cloud Computing: Should it be Integrated into the Curriculum?

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Date: Apr. 2015
Document Type: Report
Length: 6,031 words

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Author(s): Chuleeporn Changchit, Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi, TX, USA

INTRODUCTION

Nowadays, technology tends to serve as a driving force for the advancement of economic systems and the quality of life. In a workplace, technology plays a major role in improving productivity and efficiency, reducing costs, and enriching customer services. Technology also changes the way many people are doing business. Technology continues to develop and become a big part of the world each and every single day. People all over the world are adopting new technologies in order to fulfill their needs. One major benefit of technology nowadays is the ability to process big data at lightning speeds, which also requires a larger capacity for data storage. Cloud computing has attracted much attention in both commercial and academic settings. It is estimated that by 2013, the cloud market will have reached $8.1billion (Lin & Chen, 2012). This computing model has become tremendously popular due to its benefits such as cost-effectiveness, scalability, usefulness, ease of use and worldwide accessibility; although security is still a top concern. Those are some of the benefits that are attracting users and institutions to adopt the cloud services.

Education is a driving force for the continuous improvement of cloud computing. Students can gain a lot with this model as the technology makes a convenient mobile storage space (Singh & Veralakshmi, 2012). Cloud computing can bring an increased number of benefits to an educational setting (Behrend, Wiebe, London, & Johnson, 2011). It is not only the cost effectiveness, but also the thirst for technology that college students today have, which allows learning and adopting these new technologies easier for them. Cloud computing can be used to students' advantage in an educational setting for completing assignments, online classes, group projects, creating and editing papers and presentations; as well as for work or entertainment. With many benefits yielded by cloud computing models, it is interesting to find out how students perceive this technology. The success of integrating a course into a curriculum depends a lot on students' attitudes toward such topic. Therefore, it is crucial to examine the factors that encourage or discourage students to accept cloud computing as part of their course curriculum.

LITERATURE REVIEW

The cloud computing business model has been around for decades in various forms such as Application Management Services (AMS) and Application Service Providers (ASP). However, due to the higher cost at that time (both for hardware and services), the technology was only feasible as an outsourcing solution to very large organizations who could realize savings based on economies of scale (Altaf & Schuff, 2010). Although the concept of cloud computing has been around since the beginning of the computing industry in the 1960s, the technology has only recently become robust enough to provide computing services via the Internet (Marston, Li, Bandyopadhyay, Zhang, & Ghalsasi, 2011).

Cloud computing is defined by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction (Santalesa, 2011). The high demand for more advanced and efficient technology has contributed in the creation of new advancements in technology such as cloud computing. The popularization of cloud computing by companies like Amazon®, Google®, and Apple® ensure that the usage of the cloud as a storage medium for music, movies, and other media content files, will be ubiquitous in the next 10 years.

Cloud computing is a promising prospect for educational institutions, especially during budget constraints. Research in cloud computing adoption in educational settings has focused parts of its efforts to understand the drivers and constrains of students and schools to adopt this computing model. With today's technology, students' learning is no longer confined within the classroom. The educational environment could be improved to allow students to access learning resources anywhere and anytime (Wu, 2013).

One study examined the factors leading to adopting cloud computing as a virtual computing lab for a class (Behrend et al., 2011). The authors in this study found that students' ease of use perception would positively affect intentions for future use, but not for actual use. Students who complete their work faster and in a more practical manner were more likely to recognize cloud computing as an effective service, and use it more if there is no "effort to learn". This study also found that students with anxiety about new technologies had a negative effect on perceived usefulness. Another study also suggested that in order to deal with technology anxiety, it is important for universities to plan a hands-on training to help students become more familiar with these new technologies (Blue & Tirotta, 2011).

Cloud computing is found to be extremely useful and having a "tremendous potential" in classrooms (Denton, 2012), because of its "pedagogical advantages". The high demand for cloud computing, as well as the scalability and reduced cost on IT services has made it more likely for cloud computing to be part of university curricula (Chen, Liu, Gallagher, Pailthorpe, Sadiq, Shen, & Li, 2012). Integrating cloud computing services such as collective note taking, presentation creating and editing, spreadsheets, and more will influence students as future educators to use this computing model whenever they are giving classroom presentations (Denton, 2012).

A study conducted by Siegle (2010) reported four major advantages of using cloud computing in classrooms. First, multiple software applications-- since schools have computers all over campus, this can cause IT costs to rise because of the installation and services to each one of them. With cloud computing, there is no need for installation or support on the individual desktop. Second, storage -- since there is more space to store documents at the provider's server, there is less data in the computer which will improve the machines performance. Third, multiple editing -- since people can access the same document at the same time, this will allow users to work together to edit the documents. Lastly, cost efficiency-- schools are finding cloud computing to be not only "budget friendly" but also "educational beneficial".

Libraries are another education service that is becoming aware and interested in many benefits that the cloud computing services have to offer. Students are more likely to use Internet technology to find the information they need which forces university services to adapt to fulfill their students' needs. Prior studies reported benefits found when adopting cloud computing in libraries including safety and preservation (Breeding, 2013), cost efficiency, flexibility, safety, ease of access and scalability (Han, 2010). However, there were also some risks involved such as availability of service, confidentiality, and legal jurisdiction (Han, 2010).

In order to take full advantage of the cloud computing services, there needs to be a successful deployment process (Garrison, Kim, & Wakefield, 2012), the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recognized four different deployment models as follows (Das, Classen, & Dave, 2013).

1. Public cloud: Cloud infrastructure for public use. It can be operated or owned by one or more institutions. This is the most commonly used.

2. Private cloud: Cloud infrastructure for use of one organization, it can be operated or owned by a single organization, a third party or both of them.

3. Community cloud: Cloud infrastructure for use of a specific community in an organization. It can be operated or owned by one or more organizations in the community, a third party or both of them.

4. Hybrid cloud: Cloud infrastructure composed by two or more cloud infrastructures (private, public, or community).

Loebbecke, Thomas, and Ullrich (2012) analyzed a "cloud readiness" process developed by one corporation by identifying three dimensions of cloud computing and three phases of cloud readiness. In this study, a large German company using Lotus Notes for email purchased another firm with over 40,000 employees using Microsoft Exchange thereby presenting the company with an opportunity to migrate email applications to the cloud. The decision making process involved both users and leadership in determining which migrated applications would best serve the strategic goals of the firm by considering such factors as compliance and standardization.

The benefits and risks of migrating to a cloud are frequently discussed in business literature. The best feature of cloud computing is the scalability that allows computing loads to be more balanced even as the number of users increases, while also realizing economies of scale (Marston et al., 2011). Firms in both public and private sectors are constantly faced with the challenges of maintaining enterprise architecture that serves the functionality of the business, while also contending with wide ranges of end users' demands.

Cloud Computing Benefits and Risks

There are many benefits recognized when changing to cloud computing, among the most common is low cost (Das et al., 2013; Han, 2010). Cloud computing is cost effective and sometimes, it can even be free. This all depends on the services needed. The costs of IT are reduced because there is no installing, maintaining, or updating software as well as the prevention of IT emergencies or working after hours (Das et al ., 2013; Susanto et al., 2012). Cost savings also include equipment, as there is no need for expensive computers with big data capacity storage, expensive hard drives, RAMs, or operating systems (Aljabre, 2012; Susanto et al., 2012). In addition, there is also no need for a physical space to store equipment (Susanto et al., 2012) or for infrastructure facilities (Singh & Veralakshmi, 2012). These attributes will also be beneficial for data safety. Since all data is stored miles away, the data will be secure in case of a natural disaster or other possible threats of any kind (Han, 2010).

Cost saving followed by information sharing were the top rated reasons to deploy to a cloud computing model according to a global sample made in 2011, which included 314 companies (Garrison et al., 2012). The model allows for users to have worldwide access and also to access it from different technology platforms such as desktops, laptops, mobile phones, and tablets (Susanto, Almunawar, & Kang, 2012), which makes easy accessibility another benefit of cloud computing (Das et al., 2013).

Scalability is another benefit of cloud computing, because it can have unlimited storage (Das et al., 2013; Han, 2010; Singh & Veralakshmi, 2012; Susanto et al., 2012). Other known benefits of cloud computing are: reliability, because it has higher performance compared to other software (Susanto et al., 2012); flexibility, because it allows for a quick set up with room for later upgrades as the project grows (Han, 2010); eco-friendly (Das et al., 2013); and convenience as a scholarship and learning tool (Singh & Veralakshmi, 2012).

Some of the most known risks about deploying to cloud computing are data availability and a possible compromising of confidential data (Das et al., 2013). It is recommended for users to carefully go through the policies of the cloud computing system they are choosing, including data privacy and security, to ensure a successful deployment. A 2009 Gartner study showed that the top reasons organizations leave the cloud are for unmet technical requirements, poor levels of customer service, and security issues (Benlian, Koufaris, & Hess, 2012).

With many benefits promised by the use of cloud computing, it is not surprising that the demand for graduates with exposure to Cloud Computing is on the rise (Chen et al., 2012). However, before integrating such topics into the curriculum, it is crucial to understand which factors can encourage or discourage students from accepting it as a part of their course curriculum. The findings in this study should help programs to focus on the factors that encourage students to like the topic as well as finding ways to minimize the effect of discouraging factors, thus increasing the chance for the success of the integration of cloud computing into the program.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) developed by Davis was proposed in 1986 to address the question why users accept or reject information technology. The model was derived from the Theory of Reasoned Action, developed by Fishbein and Ajzen (1975). TAM was a big hit for modeling user acceptance of information systems (Bagozzi, 2007; Davis, Bagozzi, & Warshaw, 1989). It has stood the test of time by being the leading model for nearly two decades. TAM is considered the most influential and commonly employed theory for describing an individual's acceptance of information systems (Lee, Kozar, & Larsen, 2003).

A review of prior studies suggested that TAM was widely used to study users' acceptance of the new technology. The key purpose of TAM is to trace the impact of external variables on internal beliefs, attitudes, and intentions. The model suggests that two factors - perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use - are the two main factors in explaining system use. TAM has several strengths, including its specific focus on information system use, its theory base of social psychology, and the validity and reliability of its instruments. Overall, the model has received wide spread support. Based on a meta-analysis of 22 articles, TAM is successful in predicting about 40% of a system's use (Legris, Ingham, & Collerette, 2003). TAM original model is shown in figure 1 below.

Figure 1. Technology acceptance model (TAM) (Davis, 1989) [Figure omitted]

Research Model

This study has modified the TAM model to include three additional factors: (1) Perceived Security (PS), (2) Perceived Speed of Access (PSA), and (3) Perceived Cost of Usage (PCU). The proposed research model is shown in Figure 2 below.

Figure 2. Research model [Figure omitted]

Perceived Usefulness

Perceived usefulness is defined as the prospective users' subjective probability that using a specific application system will increase his or her job performance within an organizational context (Davis et al., 1989). This factor has a significant effect on usage intention (Davis et al., 1989; Venkatesh and Davis, 2000). The following scale questions, ranging from a 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree), were used to measure this construct.

1. I believe that using cloud computing will better prepare me for professional work.

2. I believe that using cloud computing will make me more competitive in the job market.

3. I believe that using cloud computing will make me more efficient at performing computer tasks.

4. I believe that using cloud computing will make others more aware of my work.

5. I believe that using cloud computing provides 24/7 worldwide accessibility to my files.

Perceived Ease of Use

Perceived ease of use is defined as the degree to which the prospective user expects the target system to be free of effort (Davis et al., 1989). This factor plays a crucial role in understanding individual responses to information technology (Chau & Hu, 2001). Research over the past decade provides evidence of the significant effect perceived ease of use has had on usage intention (Venkatesh & Davis, 2000). The following scale questions, ranging from a 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree), were used to measure this construct.

1. I believe that it is easy to use applications via cloud computing.

2. I believe that it is easy to learn how to use applications via cloud computing.

3. I believe that it is easy to understand how cloud computing works.

4. I believe that it is easy to get help troubleshooting issues with the cloud.

5. I believe that it is easy to find vendors that offer cloud computing services.

Perceived Security

Security usually refers to the degree of protection against loss, damage, danger, and criminal activity. Security awareness is an important issue for all individuals who are dealing with sensitive data in everyday life (Changchit, 2008). Security has been studied and defined in several prior studies. For instance, Yenisey et al. (2005) defined perceived security in E-commerce as the level of security that users feel while they are shopping online. Flavián and Guinalíu, (2006) presented their view of perceived security as a subjective probability with which consumers believe that their personal information (private and monetary) will not be viewed, stored, and manipulated during transit and storage by inappropriate parties in a manner consistent with their confident expectations. Roca et al. (2009) defined overall perceived security as a threat that creates a circumstance, condition, or event with the potential to cause economic hardship to data or network resources in the form of destruction, disclosures, modification of data, denial of service, and/or fraud, waste and abuse. The following scale questions, ranging from a 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree), were used to measure this construct.

1. I believe that by using cloud computing, the company that provides the service will protect my data from the theft.

2. I believe that by using cloud computing, the company that provides the service will prevent unauthorized access to my files.

3. I believe that by using cloud computing, the company that provides the service will have the means to prevent the loss of my data.

4. I believe that by using cloud computing, the company that provides the service will be a technology leader.

5. I believe that by using cloud computing, the company that provides the service will encrypt my data.

Perceived Speed of Access

The speed of using applications over the Internet can be a factor that has prevented cloud computing from being a viable option for outsourcing IT operations. Users may be unaware that the use of applications via the Internet still allows them to retrieve the data as the same speed as when the data is stored in their personal computers. For the cloud computing to be widely accepted, it is crucial that the services must allow users to access data at a reasonable speed. Users' perception on the speed of access should influence their intention to use cloud computing service. The following scale questions, ranging from a 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree), were used to measure this construct.

1. I believe that the speed of cloud computing is the same as working on files stored on a traditional laptop or PC.

2. I believe that the speed of cloud computing is sufficient for backup and storage.

3. I believe that the speed of cloud computing to upload/download files is the same as uploading/downloading to any other Internet website.

4. I believe that the speed of cloud computing to work on files will mostly depend on the speed of the Internet connection being used.

5. I believe that the speed of cloud computing is sufficient for my everyday work.

Perceived Cost of Usage

A survey conducted by ComputerWorld magazine (Wood, 2011) of IT professionals revealed that while "saves money" ranked first on the list of cloud computing key benefits, "costs more" ranked third on the list of drawbacks suggesting that the issue of cost in outsourcing information technology resources is a complex issue. In many public and private sector industries, including education, federal and state government, and telecommunications, cloud computing systems are being pilot-tested and implemented to save IT costs and improve performance (Behrend et al., 2011). The following scale questions, ranging from a 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree), were used to measure this construct.

1. I believe that the cost of cloud computing is inexpensive for the amount of storage provided.

2. I believe that the cost of cloud computing is less expensive than buying software applications for a laptop/PC.

3. I believe that the cost of cloud computing is expensive compared to cost of using open source or Internet applications.

4. I believe that the cost of cloud computing is decreases with volume, the more space you use, the cheaper it costs to buy more.

5. I believe that the cost of cloud computing is inexpensive considering the cost of maintenance I have to spend if I use my own storage.

RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

Relating to all factors discussed above, the following are the hypotheses for testing the relationship among these factors as proposed in the research model.

H1: There is a significant difference on the perceptions about the Perceived Usefulness (PU) between the subjects who believe that cloud computing should be part of their curriculum and those who do not.

H2: There is a significant difference on the perceptions about the Perceived Ease of Use (PEU) between the subjects who believe that cloud computing should be part of their curriculum and those who do not.

H3: There is a significant difference on the perceptions about the Perceived Security (PS) between the subjects who believe that cloud computing should be part of their curriculum and those who do not.

H4: There is a significant difference on the perceptions about the Perceived Speed of Access (PSA) between the subjects who believe that cloud computing should be part of their curriculum and those who do not.

H5: There is a significant difference on the perceptions about the Perceived Cost of Usage (PCU) between the subjects who believe that cloud computing should be part of their curriculum and those who do not.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Measurement Development

The questionnaire designed for this study adapted the instrument and scales developed from TAM with additional constructs as described in the proposed research model (Venkatesh & Davis, 2000; Venkatesh et al., 2003). The questions used to measure the Perceived Security constructed were adapted from prior studies (Venkatesh & Davis, 2000, Vijayasarathy, 2004; Wong & Hsu, 2008).

The questionnaire consists of thirty-three questions. Twenty-five questions with the five point Likert scale were designed to measure subjects' perceptions on cloud computing. One question (Question# 26) asks whether subjects believe that cloud computing should be a topic which should be offered as a university core course. The remaining seven questions were asked to gather some demographic data of the subjects. To validate the clarity of these questions, three professors and three researchers were asked to read through the survey questions. Revisions to the survey were made based on the feedback received.

Data Collection

The surveys were administered to students at a Southern United States University. Five hundred and eighty-five (585) subjects participated in this study. However, only five hundred and fifty-eight (558) responses are valid. Details on the subjects' demographics are provided in Table 1.

Table 1. Subjects' demographics

Gender

Male:

285 (51.1%)

Female:

262 (47%)

No Answer:

11 (1.9%)

First generation college student (if student)

Yes: 198 (35.5%)

No: 310 (55.6%)

No answer: 49 (8.8%)

Age (in years)

18-24:

449 (80.5%)

25-34:

76 (13.6%)

35-44:

14 (2.5%)

45 and over:

9 (1.6%)

No Answer:

10 (1.8%)

Ethnicity

African:

18 (3.2%)

Anglo:

209 (37.5%)

Asian:

57 (10.2%)

Hispanic:

207 (37.1%)

Native American: 4(0.7%)

Other:

27 (4.8%)

No Answer:

36 (6.5%)

College

Business:

300 (53.8%)

Education:

20 (3.6%)

Liberal Art:

64 (11.5%)

Nursing:

29 (5.2%)

Science & Technology:

126 (22.6%)

No Answer:

19 (3.4%)

Classification (if student)

Freshman:

136 (24.4%)

Sophomore:

140 (25.1%)

Junior:

167 (29.9%)

Senior:

66 (11.8%)

Graduate: 31 (5.6%)

Other:

18 (3.2%)

Employment Status

Full- time:

78 (14.0%)

Part-time:

249 (44.6%)

Unemployed:

218 (39.1%)

No Answer:

13 (2.3%)

DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

In order to examine the internal consistency of the research instrument, a reliability test was conducted. The test confirmed the reliability of the research items with Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.921.

To determine if there were significant differences on the factors between the groups of subjects who believe that cloud computing should be part of their curriculum and those who do not, t-tests on the means were conducted. The responses from subjects were divided into two groups (Cloud Computing" and "Non-Cloud Computing") based on their responses to the survey item Q26 - "I believe that cloud computing should be a topic which should be offered as a university core course".

Of all the five hundred and fifty-eight (558) subjects, one hundred and ninety-eight (198) believe that the cloud computing should be offered as a university core course, those who responded with a 4 or a 5. One hundred and fifty-six (156) do not agree that cloud computing should be offered as a university core course, those who responded with a 1 or a 2. The subjects who were uncertain on this issue (204 subjects), those who did not answer or responded with a 3, were excluded from the data analysis. The t-tests were performed to examine if there is a significant difference on the perceptions of subjects on the five factors investigated in the research model. Tables 2-6 shows the result of t-test on the five factors investigated in this study.

Table 2. Perceived usefulness

[Table omitted]

Table 6. Perceived cost of usage

Regarding hypothesis H1, the results in Table 2 above show a significant difference on the perceived usefulness between subjects in the two groups at a p-value<0.01. This finding indicates that subjects who perceive usefulness of the cloud computing as high are likely to accept the cloud computing as part of their core curriculum. Students nowadays tend to live with an idea that learning should occur at their convenience. Therefore, the higher level of usefulness they perceive in using cloud computing, the more likely that they are willing to learn more about this technology.

Concerning hypothesis H2, the results in Table 3 above show a significant difference on the perceived ease of use between subjects in the two groups at the p-value<0.01. This finding points out that subjects tend to accept the cloud computing as part of their core curriculum if they perceive that the technology of cloud computing is not difficult to use. The result conforms to a prior study that students intend to recognize cloud computing as an effective service if there is no additional effort to learn.

Table 3. Perceived ease of use

For hypothesis H3, the results in the Table 4 above also shows a significant difference between subjects in the two groups at the p-value <0.01. Security is always a major concern when people have to deal with technology. Subjects who are willing to store their data in the cloud storage tend to believe that their data will be secure. It is not surprising that the perception on the security of cloud computing should play an important role whether subjects will like to learn about this topic or not. Subjects who view this technology as secured storage tend to want to learn more about this technology and agree that it should be integrated as part of their curriculum.

Table 4. Perceived security

Regarding hypothesis H4, the results in Table 5 above also shows a significant difference between subjects in the two groups at the p-value <0.01. It is pretty obvious that the speed of access should be considered a crucial feature of cloud computing. Subjects who view cloud computing as having a good speed of access are more likely to accept the cloud computing as part of their core curriculum.

Table 5. Perceived speed of access

For hypothesis H5, the results in Table 6 above also show a significant difference on the perceived cost of usage between subjects in the two groups at the p-value<0.01. This finding indicates that subjects who perceive the cost of the cloud computing as low are willing to learn more about the cloud computing technology and are likely to accept it as part of their core curriculum.

CONCLUSION

Cloud computing is an emerging technology which promises to provide opportunities for delivering a variety of computing services in a way that has not been experienced before. It is predicted that this technology will continue to grow both in the public and private sectors. In order to increase competiveness of students in the job market, it is the responsibility of educational institutions to ensure that their students are equipped with this highly demanded technology. However, to ensure the success of program delivery, it is crucial for the universities to examine which factors play an important role in influencing students to accept cloud computing as part of their curriculum.

The results in this study reveal that all five factors, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived security, perceive speed of access, and perceived cost of usage are factors that play an important role in encouraging students to accept cloud computing as part of their core curriculum. For the factor "perceived usefulness", it is very clear from the result that if students perceive cloud computing as a technology that will be beneficial to them, they will be generally open to using it as well as learning it as part of their curriculum.

Since college students today grew up with the computers that are all around them, in their homes and schools, they have experienced everything from the "old fashioned" large desktop to the latest phone with all computing capabilities and yet small enough to fit in their pocket. Students with this generation will be more likely to accept cloud computing if their "perceived ease of use" is high, which means that less effort is required to learn how to use it.

Although many students tend to trust the services rendered by their universities simply because they do not feel that their college would provide a service that is unsafe, not all students feel secure to store confidential data on someone else's storage. The result in this study reveals that students will be more likely to accept cloud computing technology and are willing to learn about it if they perceive this technology as a secure mean to store their data. It is apparently that students do not want to be forced to use any technology that is not considered safe and secure. This finding suggests that it may be worth for the universities to educate students about the security of cloud computing before introducing it as part of their core curriculum.

The speed of access to cloud storage is also a crucial factor in this study. Students prefer technology that allows them to get the thing they want in a timely manner. They do not want to deal with multiple pages waiting to download. Therefore, it is not surprising to find that students who perceive higher speed of access in cloud computing are more likely to accept it and willing to accept it as part of their curriculum.

The cost of using new technology is always a major concern for everyone. It does not matter how great a service a new technology can render, it will be useless if the costs are higher than the benefits. The result in this study points out that students will be more likely to accept cloud computing technology if they perceive that it does not cost them much to use the technology.

There is an inherent limitation in this paper. The sample in this research was limited to subjects in one university. Although there was an attempt to gather the data from a variety of courses in the university, future research should be conducted at multiple universities. Further research should also consider expanding demographics to include users in various countries. In addition, a future study conducted could investigate in more details which feature of cloud computing help increase students' effectiveness and efficiency in the classroom.

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Chuleeporn Changchit is a Professor of Management Information Systems at Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi. She holds a Ph.D. in Decision Sciences and Information Systems from the University of Kentucky. Dr. Changchit is actively engaged in the scholarly activities. She has published articles in many journals such as Decision Support Systems, Information Systems Journal, Expert Systems with Applications, the Journal of Computer Information Systems, and International Journal of Intelligent Systems in Accounting, Finance, and Management. She also serves as an ex-Editor-in-Chief for the Journal of Information Privacy and Security (JIPS), serves as an Associate Editor for the Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organization (JECO), and serves on editorial review board for several journals.

Source Citation

Source Citation   

Gale Document Number: GALE|A416501416