Publication: The Times
- Title Mr. Kennedy Speaks Of Pause In Cold War
- Publication Title The Times
- Collection The Times Digital Archive, 1785-2008
- Date Saturday, Sept. 21, 1963
- Issue Number 55812
- Page Number 7
- Place of Publication London, England
- Language English
- Document Type Article
- Publication Section News
- Source Library Times Newspapers Limited
- Copyright Statement © Times Newspapers Limited.
IMR. 'KENNEDY SPEAKS OF PAUSE IN COLD WAR NEED TO CONTINUE THE SEARCH FOR - I EEAST-WEST AGREEMENT -NEW YQRK,.SEPT. 20 the'followitg are excerpts from the prepared text of President Kennedy's address to the United Nations General Assembly t6day:- ' Twl*nty-foor.months'ago, w hen I last 'hd the- honourof -addresaing this body, the 'shadijw6fear'lay darkly across the world. Td4ay.the clouds"have lifted a little so that new rays of hope can-break through. The pre7surdt on: west BerlIn: apsear to be te6p'or4rilv ea^ed. Political tin.ty inthe Congo has been largely restored. A neutral coalitioin ,nr Laos, S'c lestill .n d;ffiulty. is at least in ,beong. . The intetrity of' the :United Nations seoretarlat has: been ireaffirtned . A' United Nations 'dezade of develo,<'ment is - under way, And, foT the- first tiune in 17 years ot eirort,a spc :fic step:has.been.taken to lim.t the nmucear arms race. I refer, of course, to the'treaty to ban nuclear tists in the atmospheret outer space and umder water'. . . and I am confident that next Tuesday'morning. at 10.30 o'clock, it :will receive the overwhe'm'ing endorsement of the Senate of the United States. Today:we may have reached a pause' in the cold-war-.-but that is not a lasting peace. A test bah treaty is a milestone-but that is not the millenium. We have not been released from our obligations-we have been given_an opportunity. p. SPECIAL . DUTY But if: we. can stretch this pause into a period of. fruitful cooperation-if both sides can now gain new confidence and true experience. in concrete collaborations for peace-if .w.e can' now be as bold and farsighted ii the control of deadly weapons as we- hiive been in their creation-then, surely, tliis:first small step can be the start of a longi And.fruitful journey. . Tne reduction of global tension must not be an excuse fot the nirroW.pursuit of setfinterest. If the Soviet Union and'the United States with atl their global' interests and clashing cotrimitments' of ideology- and with nuclear weaipons still'aimed at each other, can : find 'areas of common interest and, agreement, then surely other. nations can do the same--nations. caught in regional conflicts, in racial itsues, .or in the death throes of the old colonialism, It is never too early to try; it is never too. late to talk; and it is high time that many disputes on the agenda of this Asse'bly were taken off the.' debating schedule, atid placed on' the. negotiating table. 'The fact r'imairis that the United States, as a major. nuclear power, 'has a special responsibility. - We' believe the Soviet Union afto has these special responsibilities -and that these responsibilities require our two' countries 'to. concentrate less on our differences 'and more on the' means of resolving them' peacefully. OLir conflicts, to be sure, are real. Our oncepts of the' world are different. No service is. jerfortned bY failing to' make clear our diragreenients, A central differ- .nce-is' 'the beief of the American people in self-determination for all peoples. THE, 'NEXT STEPS But I would say to the ieaders of.the Soviet Union, and to their peoNeX that if either o.f our countries is to be fully secure we need a mtich better weapon 'thain the H-bomb-a weapon better than:. ballistic missiles or nuclear submarines--and' that better. weapon is peaceful cooperation. I believe. therefore. that the Soviet Union and the United States, together with their allies, 'can achieve further ::agreements agreements which spring from our mutual interest in avoiding mutual destruotion. . There can be no.doubt.about the agenda of further steps. We must continue to seek agreement on measures to prevent war by accident or m'ialculation. We mnust continue to seek agreement. on safeguards against surprise attack. including observation posts at key points. We must continue to 'seek agreement otn further measures to curb the nuclear.arms race, by controlling the transfer of nuclear weapons, converting fissionable materials to. peaceful purposes, and banning underground 'testing with adequate inspection and enforcement. We must cobtinue ti seek agreement on a freer flow of informat.on ,and -people from east to,west an l west:to east. We must continue; to seek aigreement, oncouraged. by.. yesterday's' 'affirmative response to this -oroposal by the Soviet Foreign Minister. o 'an: arrangetnent to keep weapons 'of' masR destructioin out of outer- space,' 'Let- us'-get our negotiators back to the negotiating.table' to work out a.practicable arratigement to this end. 'NO :CLAIMS IN SPACE There is roo,m for' ne cooperation; for further joinit 'effofts, in ihe regulation and exploration of- space. -I include among these possibilities a joiht expedition, to the moon. Space 'offers no problem of sovereignty: by resoluton of this Assembly, the members of the United Nations have -forsworn any claims' to tefritorial rights in duter-space or On celestial bodies, and declared that international law 'and the, UbI,st&d .atidtis'Chanter.wili apply. 'Why, theroforce,.shouldmnan's first flight to the moon be a' matter bf national competition ? Why should the United States and tbe Soviet Union, in preparing for such expDditions. become- involved in immense duplications of research,.construction, 'and expenditure? 'Surcly we' should explore whether the scientists and astronauts of our two cou'ntries-indeed of 'all the worldcannot work together 'in :the :conquest of space, sending some day in this decade to the moon, n6t the represintatifies of a single nation; but 'the representatives 'of all hfumanity. : -' All these and 'other new steps toward peaceful cooperation, may be possible. Most of them. will requiro 'on cur part full consultation with our.allies-,-for tfieir interests are as much involved as" our own. Most of them will require long and careful negotiations, and most of them will require a new approach to the cold wara desire not to " bury" one's adversary but to compete.i in a host of peaceful arenas, in ideas, in production. and in service to all humanity. The provision of development assistance by individual nations must go on. But the United Nations also must play a larger role in helping bring to all men the fruits of modern science and industry. . . But mo.e, much more. can be done. For example: A world centre for health comrnunications under the World Health Or 0 nization could warn of epidemics and of the adves-se effects of certain drugs, as well as transmit the results of new experiments and new d'scoveries. Medical reg:onal research centres could advance our common knowledge and train new scientists and doctors for new nations. A global system of satellites coul;d provide communication and weather information for all corners of the earth. A world-wide programme of consetvation could protect the forest and wild game preserves now in danser of extinction, improve the marine harvest of food from our oceans and prevent the contamination of our air and our water by industrial as well as nuclear pollution. And, finally, a world-wide programme of farm productivity and fooddistributionsimilar to my own nation's "Food for Peace" programme-could give every hung.y child the food he needs. But man does not live by bread alone -and the members of this organiiation are committed by the Charter to promote and respect human rights. Those rights are not respected when a Buddhist priest is driven from his pagoda. when a synagogue is shut down, when a protostant church cannot open a mission, when a Cardinal is forced into hiding or when a crowded church service is bombed. APARTHEID OPPOSED The United States of America is opposed to discrimination and persecution on grounds of race and religion anywhere in the world, including our own nation. We are working to right the wrongs of our own nation. * I know that some of you have experienced discrimination in tbis country. But I ask you to believe me when I tell you that this is not the wish o,f most Arnericansthat we share your regret and resentrtant -and that we intend to end such practices for all time to come, not only for our visitors but for all our citizens as well. I hope that not only our nation but all other multi-racial societies will meet these standards of fairness and justice. We are opposed to apartheid and all forms of hiuman oppression. We do not advocate the rights of black Africans in order to drive out white Africans. Our concern is the right of all men to equal protection under the law-and since human rights are indivisible, this body cannot stand aside when those rights are abused or neglected by any member state. The peace-keeping record of the United Nations has been a proud-one, though its tasks are always formidable. . . . But we must have the steadfastness to see each enterprise through. It is, for example, most important not to jeopardize the extraordinary Ulmted Nations gains in the Congo. The nation which sought this organization's help only th;ee years ago has now asked the United Nations presence to remain a little longer. I believe that this Assembly should do whatever is necessary to preserve the gains already made and to protect the new nation in its struggle for progress. ARCHIMEDES' WORDS Two Years ago I told this body that the United States had proposed, and was willing to sign, a limited test ban treaty. Today that treaty has been signed. it will not put an end to war. It will not remove basic confl,icts. It will not secure freedom for alli. But it can be a lever. And Archimedes, in exPlaining the principle of the lever, was sa,id to have declared to his friends: "Give me a place where I can stand-and I shall move the world." My fellow inhabitants of this planet: Let us take our stand here in this assembly of nations. And let us see if we, in our time, can move the world towards a just and lasting Peace.-Reuter.