Publication: The Times

Full Citation

  • Title Ruling Germany As A Whole
  • Author From Our Special Correspondent
  • Publication Title The Times
  • Collection The Times Digital Archive, 1785-2008
  • Date Monday,  July 23, 1945
  • Issue Number 50201
  • Page Number 4
  • Place of Publication London, England
  • Language English
  • Document Type Article
  • Publication Section News
  • Source Library Times Newspapers Limited
  • Copyright Statement © Times Newspapers Limited.
RULING -GERMANY AS A WHOLE NEED FOR COORDINATION OF THE ZONES POWERS OF ALLIED COMMISSION OF CONTROL GOOD PROGRESS AT POTSDAM The three allied leaders met again yesterday afternoon when the Potsdam conference resumed its full-scale discussions. It is stated that " the conference is going ahead and much serious business has been done." The need for coordination of the zones of occupation is emphasized in Berlin; and it is insisted that the major problems can be solved only if Gernany is administered as a whole. Mr. Churchill on Saturday took the salute from the 7th Armoured Division at a British victory parade in Berlin. TALKS GOING AHEAD MUCH BUSINESS DONE From Our Special Correspondent POTSDAM, JULY 22 The three heads of government met ag ain to-day to discuss the manifold problems before the Berlin conference, which are being tackled as they arise on azgendas prepared by the Foreign Secretarics and the expert sub-committees. .Much serious business," it is stated, has been disposed of during the week, and the work of the conference is going ahead well. Since the formal talks opened at Potsdam last Tuesday the B.,, Three have themselves met for an average of three hours every day and the three foreign ministers are spending much time together. Last night Marshal Stalin gave his State dinner at the little Kremlin ' for the Prime Minister and President Trumanthis time Ntr. Eden was able to attendand the fact that two of these functions have been held in less than a week could have some relation to the likely duration of the conference. It was always foreseen that it would last longer than any of the war-time meetings, but none of the three heads of government would wish to drag it out unnecessarily. DECLARATION OF POLL The President. it is understood. wishes lo report to Congress before its summer recess on the work of the conference. and I Mr. Churchill. of course, has more urgent reasons to be in London. There now seems to be no question that the negotiations can be concluded before the declaration of the poll next Thursday, and it is being assumed that the Prime Minister will fly to London for the day and return to Potsdam inimediately. Divine service was held this morning in both the British and American compounds. After attending a Protestant service, Mr. Truman went on to mass, conducted by the senior Roman Catholic chaplain of the American Army, vith whom he served in the last war. This afternoon a violent windstorrn sprang up over the area and brought down many trees veakened by the shelling during the battle for Berlin. It served as a warning of the danger that still exists in the stark walls of many buildings in the city. One of the main problems before the conference is clearly the future of conquered Germany, several aspects of which are so clearlv defined here in Berlin. An authoritative statement to-night on the progress made in setting up the British Control Commission undoubtedly has its bearing on the Potsdam discussions. One of Berlin's damaged law courts, for instance, is being prepared to house the secretariat of the Allied Control Council which may begin its regular sittings next month. A house will be made available for Field-Marshal Montgomery, the British member, who oresumably vill divide his time between Berlin and his headquarters at 21st Army Group. Several informal meetings of the Allied Council have already been held by the deputy members and a good deal of useful cooperation exists. of which the agreement for the feeding of Berlin is the outstanding example. Ruhr coal is being sent into the American zone, which in turn is Providing the Rulir Mines with pit props; trains cominrv into Berlin from the west are crossin.y beth zoncs. UNIFIED CONTROL It is insi6ted-and this may be taken as a reflection of the Potsdam discussions-that the problems of Germany can be solved only if Germany is admirlistered as a whole in such matters as natural resources, transport. communications. and so on. The need for coordination between the zones of occupation is obvious. Demands can be rmet only by an inter-zone exchange of surplises, and much, it is stated, has already beca done along these lines. Soon, for examp:e, it will be possible *o nost lette:s from one zone to another. There is no suggestion that Berlin will not be the scat of allied government as agreed at Yalta, and the present conference may well decide whether Germany is to be allowed any form of central adrntinistration. So far, working upwards from the Kreis under the control of military government, Germran administration has reached the provincial level without any sign of going beyond it, though the encouragemnent by Ihe Russians of political activity might be an indication that they are prepared to accept a central Gernan government. T'here is now an accelerated flow from London of members and staffs of the British control commission which with its 12 divisions of government departments will gradually a bsorb the machiniery of military government set Lip essentially for the purposes of military operations under General Templer. Plans for the long-term conltrol of Germany. whose broad line were decided at Yalta and which have since been agreed upon by the European advisory committee in London, are gradually being put into operation. During the period of transition there are two types of organization, one with a predominantly militarY flavour the other paralleling the Gertnan machine and working nmore in the manner of Whitehall than of a military headquarters. The control commission is being deployed alongside military government detachments in- the field and gradually responsibilitv is being transferred to it from the 21st Army Grout., which itself will eventually be absorbed hy the army division of the council of which. Of course, Field-Marshal Montgomery is the head. 1, is already clear that such matters as finance, legal, and internal affairs can be trans- ferred at an earlier date than things like transport. food, and agriculture. or trade and industry, which still depend almost entirely on the army for executive action in the field. Again, the accommodation and signals available wvill affect the rate of the merger and it seems likely that for some time the main body of the commission will remain in and arotind 2I t Army Group headquarters at Bad Oeynhausen. Including the present staffs of militaryI government. many of whom are expected to stay on in their posts after dischlarge from the artmy, the control runs into many thotisands of people whose numbers may be expected to decrease as more responsibility is given to the Germans. A small part of the commission will sit in Berlin where a temporarv building has been taken over, and it is hoped to keep the whole organization flexible| in order that its weight may be distributed as need arises. Yesterday the Prime Minister, driving down to the Tiergarten to take the salute at the victory parade of British forces in Berlin. lived one of his finest hours. In his own words. ilndeed. it was tile hour he had lived for, thoughl even Mr. Churchill can never have imagined that he would be cheered in -the streets of the enemy's conqtiered capital. This astonishing1 spectacle occurred when he went alone after the parade to give his blessing to the Winston clib on the Kurfuirstendarrnm, formerly the well-known Komiker cabaret which has been taken over by the N.A.A.F.I. as a club for otiher ranks. BERLINERS CHEER As the Prime Minister left with FieldMarshal Montgomery and Field-Marshal Alexander. his two great chieftains of victory. several hundred waiting people surged round his car and spontaneously applauded him, to which he replied with his familiar V sign. It would be difficult to fathom the psychology of an emotional outburst that seemed unbelievable even as we looked on. There were moments of emotion, too, inside the Winston Club as the Prime Minister. addressing himself to the 7th Armroured Division-" dear Desert Rats "-he called them-spoke of the many moving incidents brought to his mind by the march past. from these " last long, fierce years." He found them established in Berlin, from wlhich, as from a volcano. fire and smoke and poison fumes have erupted over Europe twice in theirl generation. In bygone times also German fury had been let loose on her neighbours, and now it was we who had our place of occupation in Germany. Turning to the Desert Rats, the Prime Minister said that they were the ftirst to begin. The 11th Hussars were in action in the desert in 1940, and ever since had marched steadily forward on the long road to victory, fighting their way through many countries and changing scenes. ' Dear Desert Rats," he exclaimed, may your glory ever shine; may your laureLs never fade; may the memory of this glorious pilgrimage which you have made from Alamein via the Baltic to Berlin never die." It was, he went on, a march unsurpassed through all the story of war, according to his reading of history. May fathers long tell the children of their exploits; may they all feel that in following their great Commanders thev had accomplished something which had doine good to the whole world, had raised the honour of their own country, and of which every man had a right to be proud. IMMACULATE PARADE In its way yesterday's immaculate parade totiched the climax of the celebrations of victory, for here in the heart of Berlin the British Prime Minister with Field-Marshal Montgomery and Field,Marshat Alexander and a host of senior allied officers watched the glistening tanks and guns of MajorGeneral Lyne's 7th Armoured Division roll fot-vard across the breadth of the Charlottenburger Chaussee framed in superb power against the tall victory column above which the French' tricolor justly flies. Then came the inspiring marching of men in columns of six-a naval detachment from l-.M.S. Pembroke, led by the Chatharn band of the Royal Marines in their white spiked helmets. the Ist Battalion. Grenadier Guards. swinging past as one man, the Ist/5th Battalion, The Queen's Royal Regiment, and the 2nd Battalion, The Devonshire Regiment. the Canadian Berlin Battalion, with its kilted pipe hand, the medical and supply services and detachments from the R.A.F. What a proud moment it was ! And no one was more justly proud than General Lyne and -his parade commander, Brigadier J. M. K. Spurling. Mr. Churchill on arrival received a salute of 19 guns, fired by the 3rd Regiment, Royal Horse Artillery, the senior regiment on parade. and Mr. Attlee, who arrived with Mr Eden, a special cheer from the many troops. who watched. In view of the prevalence of typhoid and dysentery in Berlin, General Lyne to-night has reluctantly put out an order placing all restaurants and cafes out of bounds to troops pending medical clearance. On his way back to Potsdam the Prime Minister broke his journey along the Avtts motor road to inspect the American 2nd Armoured Division at the special request of General Marshall, United States Chief of Staff, who together with Admiral King and General Arnold had attended the British parade. With Nir. Cliurchill at Marshal Stalin's State dinner last night were Mr. Attlee, Mr. Eden, Lord Leathers, Sir Archibald Clark Kerr, Britishi Ambassador in Moscow, and Major Bir.se, the interpreter. President Truman was accomparnid by Mr. Byrnes, Admiral'Leahy. Mr. Joseph Davies, former American Ambassador in Moscow, Mr. Hlarriman,ttnd Mr.C. E. Bohlein, the President's inite rpreter. The men-m bers of the Russian delegation present l<:sidcs Marshal Staliin are not stated. NEW GERMAN NEWSPAPER BERLIN, tJuly 2.i-Germany's new central party-the Christian Democratic Unionfounded in the Russian occupied area of Germany, to-day published the first issue of its dally newvspaper, Nef(e Zeir. The Big Three conference was described prominently on the front page. There was atlso a Soviet News Agency dispatch from Newv York. quoting an article in the Chri.s,ian Sih'ruce Monilo,. on Russian claims for the control of the Dardanelles.-Reulger,