Full Citation

  • Title Germany's Future
  • Publication Title Daily Mail
  • Collection Daily Mail
  • Date Friday,  Aug. 3, 1945
  • Issue Number 15364
  • Page Number [1]
  • Place of Publication London, England
  • Language English
  • Document Type Article
  • Publication Section News
  • Source Library Associated Newspapers Limited
  • Copyright Statement © Associated Newspapers Limited.
BIC THREE speak: Vital decisions made, and this is— GERMANY'S FUTURE Germany's future Reparations: Russians to take 'removals' f SPAIN IS EXCLUDED The Big Three before the final meeting in Potsdam. T'HE BIG THREE, in their communique of 6,000 words issued late, last night, * outline a preliminary blueprint for the future of Europe as a whole and Germany in particular; fix reparations in broad outline; go out of their way to snub General Franco; and establish a Council of Five Foreign Ministers, with hdt i Ld t thttlt Fore headquarters in London, to prepare the peace settlement. In dealing with Germany the three Powers make it clear that the measures proposed are preventive rather than punitive, and that Allied policy throughout is to be thoroughly co-ordinated. The Reich will be reduced to a mainly Agricultural State. President Truman, Generalissimo Stalin, and Prime Minister Attlee declare that the long Conference just concluded at Potsdam has strength¬ ened the ties between the three Governments and extended the scope of their collaboration and understanding. They leave the Conference with renewed confidence that the three Powers, with the other United Nations, " t "will ensure a just and lasting peace." GERMANY THE Declaration settles Germany's fate for the immediatejjuture,.politically, militarily, and economically, and makes if clear tfiat'Gef- many's long-term future will depend entirely on her own good behaviour. Uniformity of treatment throughout Ger¬ many, irrespective of zones of occupation, is pledged. Germany is promised that she will neither be destroyed nor enslaved, and the pur¬ poses of occupation are defined as— To disarm and demilitarise the country and to eliminate or control all arms industries. To abolish German fighting forces of every de¬ scription and everything associated with them. To crush in every way the military trodition. One of the most vital principles admitted in the Declaration is that of the mass transfer of German popu¬ lations back into Germany from Poland, Czecho-Slovakia. and Hungary. It is laid down that these transfers must be carried out in an orderly and humane manner, and the Govern¬ ments concerned are in the meantime asked to suspend the present series of expulsions. This will affect particularly the Sudetenland Germans of Czecho-Slovakia and the Germans settled in the terri¬ tories recaptured from the Germans. FRANCO'S SPAIN A SEN SATIONAL section is aimed at Franco's Spain. In stating that membership of the United Nations is open to all peace-loving nations, Spain is specifically barred. The Declaration states : " The three Governments feel bound to make it clear that they for their part would not favour any application for membership put forward by the pre¬ sent Spanish Government, whieh, having been founded with the support of the Axis Powers, does not, in view of its origin, its nature, its reoord, and its close association with the aggressor States, possess the qualifications necessary to justify suoh membership." REPARATIONS THE Declaration lays it down that reparations shall leave enough to enable Genrjany to exist without outside help. It is agreed that: Russia shall take her own reparations " by removal" from the area she controls. Russia shall settle all Polish claims to reparations. British and American claims shail be met from the Western zones and from German external assets. Russia shall also receive from the Western zones 15 per cent, of usable industrial capital equipment in exchange for food and certain raw materials ; also 10 per cent. xof such industrial equipment as is not needed for Germany's peace economy, this 10 per cent, to be given without payment of any kind. Russia makes no claim to gold captured by Allied troops. It is agreed that Konigsberg arid the surrounding area shall go to Russia, and temporary boundaries have been decided. COUNCIL OF 5 A COUNCIL of Foreign Ministers of the five principal Powers — Britain, the United States, Russia, France, and, China—is to be set up immediately, with its headquarters in London. Its first meeting will be held not later than September 1, and its immediate task will be to draw up peace treaties with— Italy, Rumania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Finland. It is agreed that when peace treaties have been signed with. Italy, Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary, and Rumania, these countries will become eligible for Continued in PAGE 4, COLUMN 1 Reich: 'Agricultural, self-supporting9 5 Foreign Ministers to remap Europe Poland PQLAHO mmmmm Sonembership of the United Nations. The Council will also have the major task of preparing the Anal peace settlement for Germany and it proposes territorial settle¬ ments generally. Although the Council will treat London as its permanent seat, can, from time to time, irupt in other capitals. * * * fHE Polish Provisional Gov¬ ernment is to be given assist¬ ance in the task of getting all Poles back to Poland. It is reported that free elections under a secret ballot are to take place as soon as possible, and the fullest freedom is to be given to the Allied Press tQ report events in Poland before, during, and after the election. The question of Poland's wastorn frontier Is to await tho peace settle¬ ment, # * * "pURTHER examination is to be -■- given to extending the au¬ thority of the Austrian Provisional Government. * * * THE Declaration emphasises that the principal objectives of the Three Powers are to destroy Nazism completely, and to rebuild Germany on a completely democratic basis. No central German government is to be permitted for the present, though key central administrative departments may be set up under Allied direction. Immediate mea¬ sures for Germany's futura are listed as : (i) The repair of transport! (2) To dig more coal; - (3) To grow mora food; and (4) To repair houses and all essential utilities. The Declaration lays it down that freedom of speech, freedom of the Press, freedom of religion, and the establishment of free trade unions are all to : be fully en- aged subject to milittfry security. PENALTIES GERMANY will suffer these penalties Maintenance and production of all aircraft, civil or military, to be forbidden. All Nazi officials to be arrested or interned. Nazism in all its forms and manifestations to be destroyed completely. Germany's political structure to be decentralised, and local re¬ sponsibility developed by the elec¬ tion of local councils throughout the country. Democratic political parties and free trade unions are to be en¬ couraged. Production of arms, air¬ craft, and sea-going ships to be prohibited. Production of metals, chemicals, and machinery to bt rigidly eon- trolled Suoh productive equipment as Is not needed fro Germany's per¬ mitted production, to bo handed over as reparations or destroyed. German economy to be decen¬ tralised, and all trusts, cartels, syndicates, and monopolies t be abolished. Emphasis to be placed on the igricultural industry and" on essen¬ tially domestic industries..*'"" War Criminals.—First list for at will be published this month. I