Publication: Daily Mail

Full Citation

  • Title This is the debt that Germany will pay
  • Publication Title Daily Mail
  • Collection Daily Mail
  • Date Friday,  Aug. 3, 1945
  • Issue Number 15364
  • Page Number 2
  • Place of Publication London, England
  • Language English
  • Document Type Article
  • Publication Section News
  • Source Library Associated Newspapers Limited
  • Copyright Statement © Associated Newspapers Limited.
TBRZE MEN FRAME TBE OFE Of A CONTINENT This is the Germany debt that will pay MACHINERY for the control of Germany —economic, and political—is outlined in the greater part of the 6,000-words communiqu . issued in Potsdam after the Big Three Confer¬ ence, which began on July 17 and ended yesterday- Unde. the Potsdam Agreement Germany is denied any form of central government, but will be allowed local governments on democratic Unes. She will be completely demilitarised and her arms industries destroyed or controlled. Reparations—the amount is not specified—will be taken from the respective zones of occupation. Here are extracts from the text: us he ll he he e¬ m¬ he on ly s. d he n al d- s¬ r¬ he he ffi¬ c¬ m s¬ n¬ al m¬ t, se he h¬ nd s. e¬ n, ut e i¬ n y o. e- rs al e e nt r¬ e e n¬ e h a, n¬ st m e o¬ d n t ¬ e ¬ d d ex COUNCIL or s "7" ■•• THE Conference reacned . . .. an agreement for the establishment of a Council Of Foreign Ministers represent- ing the flve principal Powers to continue the necessary prepara- e - ¬ y, n e ¬ d tory work for the peace settle¬ ments and to take up other mat¬ ters which, from time to time, may be referred to the Council by agreement of the Govern¬ ments participating in the Council. The text of the agreement is: 1 There shall be established a . Council composed of the Foreign Ministers of the United Kingdom, the Union 3 The Council shall normally • meet In London, which shall be the permanent seat of the joint Secretariat whieh the Council will form. Each of the Foreign Ministers will be accompanied by a high- ranking deputy, duly author¬ ised to carry on the work of the Council in the absence of his Foreign Minister, and by a small stall of technical advisers. The first meeting of the Council shall be held in London not later than September 1, 1945. Meetings may be held by com¬ mon agreement in other capi¬ tals as may be agreed from time to time. 3 As its immediate-important • task, the Council shall be authorised to draw up. with a view to their submission to the United Nations, treaties ot peace with Italy, Rumania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Fin¬ land, and to propose settle¬ ments of territorial questions outstanding on the termination of the war in Europe. The Council shall be utilised for the preparation of a settlement for Germany __ -Termany when a Govern¬ ment adequate for the pur¬ pose Is established. For the discharge of each of these tasks the Council will be composed ot the members representing those States which were signatory^ to the. terms of surrender imposed upon the enemy State con¬ cerned. •!•»«• ^be „»__.* GERMANY wr] . AGREEMENT has been .reached on the political and eeonomic principles of a co-ordinated Alhed policy toward defeated Germany during the period of Allied control. The purpose of this agreement ina purpose oi mu agreemeni tionSr^rm.?v4C,S™.dneCmil*i' Hon on Germany German mill- tarlsm and Nazism will be extir pated and the Allies will take, in agreement together, now and in the future. the other measures .ne xuiure, ine ourer measures necessary to assure that Germany never again will threaten her neighbour, or th. peace of the . . . . _. It Is not tha intention of fhe Allies to destroy or enslave the _»-_—-I __.—i- |» i- n>- in- ' aiilaa that iha «'"■a .imi in« German* padple be given tha opportunity to prepare for the eventual noonstniotlon of thoir life on a demooraflo and paaoeful basis. If their own efforts are steadily directed to this end, it will be possible for them in due course to take their place among the free and peaceful peoples of the world. The text of the agreement is: pouncni Iin accordance with the agree- • ment on control machinery in Germany, supreme authority in Germany is exercised, on instruc¬ tions from their respective Gov¬ ernments, by the Commanders-in- Chief of the Armed Forces of the U.S.. the U.K., the U.S.SJt, and France, each in his own zone cf occupation, an-" also jointly, in matters affecting Germany as a O So far as is practicing, mer. *• shall be uniformity of treat- -..nt of the German population S-o_jhout Germany. whole, ln their capacity as mem¬ bers of the Contro] Council. So far is practicable, there „ rcbt purposes of the occupa «• tion of Germany by which ^Jfig?1 C9uncl1 sha: (a) The complete disarmament and demilitarisation cf Ger¬ many and the elimination or control of all German in¬ dustry that could be used for military production. To these ends: All German land, naval, and air forces, the S.S., S.A., S.D., and Gestapo, with all their or¬ ganisations, staffs, and insti¬ tutions, including the General Stall, the Officers' Corps, Reserve Corps, military schools, war veterans" organi¬ sations, and all other military and quasi-military organisa¬ tions, together with all clubs and associations which serve to keep alive the military tradition in Germany, shall be completely and finally abolished in such manner as permanently to prevent the revival or reorganisation of ___i__w control ammunition, and im- plements of war and all spe- cialised facilities for their — _-_____.__ _._-_« _._ __-._. ___. production shall be held at the disposal ot the Allies or destroyed. The maintenance and production of all aircraft -_ .„ ----- ---------un-. and 'all arms, ammunittonj and implements of war be prevented. (b) To convince the German people that they have suffered a total miltary defeat and that they cannot escape responsi¬ bility for what they have „,,,,, .„- _,.,_. ,.,_. „-v_ bro-iht^ntheWseives,___-. their owV ruthless warfare and the fanatical Nasi resist- ance have destroyed German economy and made chaos and suffering inevitable. (cl To destrov the National SociaUst Party and its Tfi at_k ^"JSe^sed^r-K-TcSf. regime or established discrimina- tion on grounds of race, creed, or political opinion shall be abolished. No such discriminations, whether legal, administrative, or other- wise, shall be tolerated. K war criminals and those who O. have participated in plan- mng or carrying out Nazi enter- prises involving or resulting in atrocities or war crimes sha: xo dissolve au nazi insuiu- tions. to ensure that they are not revived in any form, and to prevent all Nazi and mili- tarist activity or propaganda, (d) to prepare" for/he eventual reconstrucUon of German poll- tical life on a democratic basis and for eventual peacefu •=»• operation in international Hfe by Germany. i All N-.i law. whir* r,™. 4. ^lT^^iol\^^Vr atrocities war crimes snau oe "r"tad and br°u*ht t0 >ud*n"nt- _ A11 m.mh,_, ot th. Mtel 6 All members of the Nazi • Party who have been more than nominal narficinants in its isnts •cti?"i«* an-4.>.l °tn« Persons participai all othei c _V:i- *- a;.:____ *_,*.-_*___>_»_, _,v_»n JS".!1'.,'--- *Ji!2imffi_?Sf5 .2_i Sf,fc^?0„vid fr°mHpUfr„™ "ELKSI- ff1"^^^ ^-.g^SS private undertakings. _ r.„_,_ -j„._(!„- .h.u „. 7. G"ma°,-.SilT ' .nmi.t.w s0 controlled as completely to eliminate Nazi and militarist .___.*_{_«. _-j ♦- —,._._, *____ii,!_, doctrines and to make possible the successful development of democratic ideas. To this end: (I.) Local self-government shall be restored throughout Ger¬ many on democratic prin¬ ciples, and in particular < ' : HELD OVER- A new feature for ex-Service men »»%■»»»»< Film reviews -TILL TO-MORROW • through elective councils ai rapidly is is consistent with military iecurity and the pur¬ poses of military occupation; encouraged throughout Ger¬ many; (Ml.) Representative and elec¬ tive principles shall be intro¬ duced into regional, provincial, and State (Land) administra¬ tion as rapidly as may be justified by the successful application of these principles in local self-government; (Iv.) For the time being no Central German: Government shall be established. Notwith¬ standing this, however, cer¬ tain essential Central German administrative departments. headed by State Secretaries, shall be* established, particu¬ larly in the fields of finance, transport, communications, foreign trade, and industry. Such departments will act under the direction of the Control Council. | n Subject to the necessity for s.vi maintaining military prMJt «n«l r»l___.<m ahall be oer- mittefc and relSious instStufifflia . - _ ... j,iU £, respected. Subject, like- w;,j t0 the maintenance of mili- tarv' security the formation ot »r.i >rlj- unions shall be per- mitt_)J ECONOMIC Uin order to eliminate Ger- ' many's war potential, the production of arms, ammunition, ^tfig«Sfe&,Si"JTSfiS tfJ??8^,ffS$<^,SSISa_ iSSt,1**11 * Pr«>M-«ed •»» Pr¬ venwo. Production of metals, chemicals, machinery and other items that are directly necessary to a war econ- «»/ «h»11 »• rigidly controlled ™_L ____.W____1 - ?. __2__S3Z__ ~___ir vl '"v.. .v_ _j_i__*.,__. J*** .^.J^jLif*,. <*1*ctlv'l, ,tatwl «n Paragrtpn II. Productive capacity not needed for permitted production shall be fflfe^ dSSPSSSSJ-SSd^ {fe^^kF^iK^^eMra^ S»*™2-,S_roved^bv the gSm_S- S/7m2Sd S if Sl * ™*"» 'SaffSrdVstraved. ?,TV..- V . _., „ 1 2 _"_ •"?_. e»'ue»* practicable ^^^n^t^^l ^£SS_£!^rS--£- Eower as exemplified in particular y cartels, syndicates, trusts and other monopolistic arrangements. tic industries. - . nnrin* the i-i.ri._t nf orm,. 14. ^tZi *&!____? _h__FK (r„,.H „", „ angle econpmic unit. 1 common policies shall be established in regard to: treated________.. _______ To this end be established reaard to: (a) Mining and industrial production and allocation; (b) Agriculture, fore stry and fishing; (c) Wages, prices and rationing; (d) Import and export pro¬ grammes for Germany as a whole; (e) Currency and banking, central taxation and Customs; (f) Reparation and removal of industrial war potential; (g) Transportation and communications. In applying these policies ac- count shall be taken, where appro- priate. of varying local conditions. IK Allied controls shall be xt*. imposed upon the German economy, but only to the ex- tent necessary: <a> To carry out j>rojrammes and maintenance of goods and services required to meet industrial disarmament and demilitarisation, of rep¬ arations, and of approved ex¬ ports and imports. (b) To assure the production maintain in Germany average living standards not exceed¬ ing the average of the stan- dards of living of European countries. (European countries means all European countries excluding tht LUC end the U-S-S-R.) .(e) To ensure in the manner determined by the Control Council the equitable distri¬ bution of essential commodi¬ ties between the several zones so as to produce a balanced economy throughout Ger¬ many and reduce the need for imports. " (d) To control German industry and aU economic and financial international transactions, in- eluding exports and imports, witta the aim of preventing wirp"ent'SimandeVof1,tSfev* Z, P the other obiettivei n.™_. vf.r.£, omeeuves «•:.«£..■ ,_V..7."i! r_.™__ -„k (e) To control all German pub- _le,.-rch1T\nd'd?-£-tee--S- intttuUons? laborXriS^t?.> ronn.rted with economic aotiviUes * ■ 1ft In the imposition and main- XO. tenance of economic con- trols established by the Control _, . ... _-.-------- __i__.___i___.i— required to the fullest extent p__:.-._Hf.f_-p5S _?_* ™*™u adminlstration ot sucn controls. Measures shall be promptly Council, German administrative machinery shall be created, and the German authorities shall be -—'--■' ♦» ,h- *■»-•* _*»»nt 17. taken: (a) to effect essential re¬ pair ot transport; (b) to enlarge coal produc¬ tion ; («) to -maximise agricul¬ tural output; (d) to eflect emergency re¬ pair of housing and essential utilities. uuuuva. 1e Appropriate steps shall be 18 • taken by the Control Coun- ^ iu _*c*wc. ™——-----«*- power ot disposition over Ger- man-owned external assets not already under the control oi United Nations which have taken "* *■ "" *" "T ,7" 10 P»y"«-t ot reparation. ■»•"• should leave enough re- •°""-« «° enable the German people to subsist without external assistance. In working out the economic balance of Germany, the --»?of?n?p.?t-,.^rPorv°eSid-- *th°J°01 Sil ^G—-'' _imi_ll«fAllf -MUM-MOOT accordance with the _ Crimea decision that Germany be compelled to compensate to the greatest pos- -i- -„•-_. __..«_. l/>.= anrl _S«i__?hat she has caused l£ ungitedT Nations? and *" ™]r;_,,~Yh.r___«_man oeonle can- which the ^~~^P_jieo|ue can not escape responsibility, following agreement on repara¬ tions was reached : 1 Reparation claims of the • U.S.8.R. shall be met by re¬ movals from the zone of Germany occupied by the U.S.S.R. and from appropriate German external assets. undertakes to of Poland from its own share of reparations. 3 The reparation claims of the • United Mates, the United Kingdom, and other countries en¬ titled to reparations shall be met from the Western Zones and from appropriate German external assets. i„ .ddition to the reparation. *. to be taken by the U.S.S.R from its own zone of occupation, the U.S.S.R. shall receive addition- ally from the Western Zones: (1) Fiftee„ -«_ cent. of such i per usable and complete indus¬ trial capital equipment, in the first place from the metal¬ lurgical, chemical, and ma¬ chine manufacturing indus¬ tries, as is unnecessary for the German peace economy and should be removed from the . , - . _ _ petroleum products, ana such other commodities as may be agreed upon. (b) Ten per cent, of such in- dustrial capital equipment as is unnecessary fo-thTGerman peace economy and should be removed from the Western Zones, to be transferred to the Soviet Government on repara- tions account without pay- ment or exchange of any t*:"-' in return. Removals of equipment Western Zones of Germany, in exchange for an equivalent value of food, coal, potash, zinc, timber, clay products. na- _,__-_-_.-_.. «_ _-ro- vided in (a) and (b) above shall be made simultaneously- sj The amount of equipment to O. be removed from the West- ern Zones on account of repara- tions must be determined within "" m°nthS ft°m n0Wl *tthe lateSt ft Removals of industrial capital o. equipment shall begin as soon ** Possible and shall be com- pieted within two ysars from the 2f»5,m'natioa ipecined ta *»»• >"«* «• . , . , The delivery of products covered by 4(a) above shall begin as soon as possible and shall be made by the U.S.SJS. in agreed in- stalments within flve years of the date thereof Equipment The determination of the amount -nd character of the industrial capital equipment unnecessary for the German peace economy, and therefore available for reparation, shall be made by the Control Council under policies fixed by the •- amoun. o *2aI1reS0™''d« £u\\*m»de Allied Commission on Reparations, with the participation of France, subject to the final approval of the Zone Commander in tne zone from which the equipment is to be Re¬ moved. 7 Prior to the fixing of the total • amount of equipment subject advance deliveries respect of such amount of^^uS^ennubj'e.J f((rth pirtgrap(i g. --- f-„„_-„„„„. 8' ™»- - *'< ^_s Tre.. 0f reparations to shares of German enterprises which are located In the Western Zones of occupation Germany, as well as to Germ foreign assets in all countries ex cept those specified in Paragraph 9 *Vh r O.^dn'r^nouL-16 S claims in respect of reparations to -_ __ _ gible for delivery in ac- cordance with the procedure set last sentence of ____„ ,, -,-,_. ■„ „_._-_-, _?"«™! Mi? » rlf.S_^ , ,,_,,,„„ ,„ f„ p^_?m_S to oerman shares of "German " enterprises which are located in the Eastern Zone of occupation in Germany, as well as to German foreign assets in Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary, Rumania, and Eastern Austria. KONICSBEHC THE Conference examined a pro¬ posal by the Soviet Govern¬ ment that, pending the final deter¬ mination ot territorial questions at the peace settlement, the section of the western frontier of the U.S.S.R. which is adjacent to the Baltic Sea should pass from a point on the eastern shore of the Bay of Dan¬ zig to the east, north of Brauns- berg-Goldap, to the meeting point of the frontiers of Lithuania, the Polish Republic, and East Prussia. The Conference has agreed in principle to the proposal of the Soviet Government concerning the ultimate transfer to the Soviet Union of the c(ty of Kbnlgaberg and the area adjacent to it as described above, subject to expert examination of the actual frontier. | POL/mND~] THE Conference considered Questions relating to the p u g provisional Government and th western boundary ef Poland. _ ,fc p.n«h Provisional 1 . 9,n__-tiL' -'?H,n»f n.! Smi if* <s°"™T?fln' ,, S___!tu8_d- U""*' ""£ <}«*nS,H__-Ma. ° m the followin. statement. We have taken note with pleas- ure 0f the agreement reached airion_ representative Poles from -- * -^---j ...u:-u u-. Poland and abroad which has made possible the formation, m accordance with the decisions reached at ttwCrimea Conference, " ""'" " " Ky the Three Powers.' Th„ „.,_,Wi5hrn_nt b- _„Th?T J rnv^ments of dlpio- '"1.Jf.,_«_n. *^th the Poli°h S-vMe-H- 'GoVeTnmentV-^re- suited in the withdrawal of their recognition from the former Polish Government in London, which no longer exists The British and U.S. Govern- mentshave taken measures to pro- tect the interest of the Polish Pro- visional Government as the recog- nised Government of the Polish state in the property belonging to the Polish State located in their territories and under their control. whatever the form of this pro- >»r^ ma^.be'Powers are anxlou, to assist the Polish Provisional Government in facilitating the re- turn to Poland as soon as practic- able of all Poles abroad who wish to go. including members of the Polisn Armed Forces and the Mer- chant Marine. Thay expeot that those Poles who return home shall be aoosrded personal and property rights on the same basis as ail Polish oltlzens. 9. The following agreement ™ £"$___? *"* ""*"' ,n"" The three Heads of Government shall be under the administratio-n of the Polish State, and for^such termination of Poland's western frontier, the former German tern- tories east of a line running from the Baltic Sea immediately west of Swinemunde, and thence along the Oder River to the confluence of the western Neisse River and along the western Neisse to the Czecho-Slovak frontier, including that portion of East Prussia not piaced unaer the administration of the U.S.S.R. in accordance with the understanding reached.at this Con¬ ference and including the area of the former free city of Da purposes should not be considered as part of the Soviet zone of occu- pation in Germany.