Full Citation

  • Title Big Three Chart Future of German Nation
  • Publication Title Aberdeen Journal
  • Collection Aberdeen Journal
  • Date Friday,  Aug. 3, 1945
  • Issue Number 28264
  • Page Number 2
  • Place of Publication Aberdeen, Scotland
  • Language English
  • Document Type Article
  • Publication Section News
  • Source Library British Library
Big Three Chart Future of German Nation KONIGSBERG GOES TO RUSSIA Council of Five Foreign Ministers to Meet Regularly in London THE Berlin "Big Three" Conference at Potsdam established a Council of Foreign Ministers to pre- pare Peace Treaties with the defeated countries and to plan the peaceful settle- ment of Germany "when a German Government ade- quate for the purpose is established," says the offi- cial report issued last night. The Council will be com- posed of the Foreign Minis- ters of the United Kingdom, Russia, China, France and the United States with a high-ranking deputy for each to ensure continuity. It will normally meet in London and the first meeting will be on or before Sep- tember 1. A Secretariat will be established permanently in London. Expert advisers will accom- pany members to Council meetings which may be held in other capitals. Other matters besides the peace settlements may be re- ferred to the Council by the " Big Five " Governments. OTHER NATIONS MAY JOIN IN Countries other than the five named may be invited to be re- presented when their affairs are under discussion, and France is to be included in the negotiation of the peace with Italy. China and France, who were not represented at Berlin, have been invited to join this Coun- cil, but the " Big Three" of Berlin reserve the right to con- sult among themselves. The European Advisory Commission is dissolved and its work passed over to the Allied Control Councils in Berlin and Vienna. The " Big Three" stress that the Conference has strengthened the ties linking their three Governments and renewed their confidence that the United Nations will go forward to create a just and enduring peace. The Conference Report then sets out the political and econo- mic principles that are to govern the treatment of Germany in the initial control period. Agreement has been reached at this Conference, states the Re- port, on the political and econo- mic principles of a co-ordinated Allied policy towards defeated Germany. The purpose of this agreement is to carry out the Crimea De- claration on Germany. GERMANS TO GET CHANCE German militarism and Nazism will be extirpated and the Allies will take in agreement together, now and in the future, the other measures necessary to assure that Germany never again will threa- ten her neighbours or the peace of the world. It is not the intention of the Allies to destroy or enslave the German people. It is their intention that the German people be given the opportunity to prepare for the eventual reconstruction of their life on a democratic and peace- ful basis. If their own efforts are directed to this end, it will be possible for them in due course to take their place among the free and fuJ peoples of the world. ■the Conference Report then quotes the following declaration on 'he Allied policy in Ger- many:— POLITICAL PRINCIPLES Authority in Germany is exer- cised on instructions from their Governments by the Com- manders-in-Chief of the Ameri- can, British, Russian, and French Forces, each in his own Occupa- tion Zone, and also jointly as members of the Control Council. So far as is practicable there shall be uniformity of treatment of the German population throughout Germany. The purposes of the occupation of Germany are: — —The complete disarmament and demilitarisation of Ger- many and the elimination or con- trol of all German industry that could be used for military pro- duction. „ To these ends, all German forces, the Gestapo and all other military and quasi-military or- ganisations, clubs and associa- tions, which serve to keep aliye the military tradition in Germany shall be abolished and not re- vived. All munitions shall be handed over or destroyed, and the pro- aircraft and munitions shall be prevented. 2, convince the German people that they have suf- xered a total military defeat and cannot escape responsibility. 3—To destroy the National J Socialist Party and all Nazi institutions and prevent all Nazi and militarist propaganda A—To prepare for the eventual ~ reconstruction of German political life on a democratic basis and for eventual peaceful co-operation in international life by Germany, all Nazi laws which provided the basis of the Hitler regime or established discrimina- tion on grounds of race, creed or politics shall be abolished. —War criminals shall be brought to judgment. Nazi leaders and any other persons dangerous to the occupation or its objectives shall be arrested and interned. PLAN FOR ELECTIONS (L —All members of the Nazi Party who have been more than nominal participants in its activities shall be removed from positions of responsibility and re- placed by persons deemed cap- able of assisting in developing genuine democratic institutions. *7 —German education shall be ' so controlled as completely to eliminate Nazi and militarist doctrines and to make possible the successful development of democratic ideas Q—The judicial system will be ° reorganised in accordance with the principles of democracy. Q —The administration of affairs in Germany should be direc- ted towards decentralisation of the political structure and deve- lopment of local responsibility. To this end: — Local self-government shall be re- stored throughout Germany on democratic principles ami in par- ticular through elective councils. All democratic political parties shall be allowed and encouraged through- out Germany. Representative and elective principles shall be introduced into Regional, Provincial and State (Land) ad- ministration. For the time being no central German Government shall be established, but essential central administrative departments under State Secretaries shall be established, particularly in the fields of finance, transport, communications, foreign trade and industry. They will act under the direction of the Control Council. I f)— Subject to the necessity for ■ maintaining military secur- ity. freedom of speech. Press and religion shall be permitted. Re- ligious institutions shall be re- spected and trade unions shall be permitted. ECONOMIC PRINCIPLES | I—To eliminate Germany's • ■ war potential, the produc- tion of arms, ammunition and implements of war and all types of aircraft and sea-going ships shall be prohibited. Production of metals, che- micals and machinery neces- sary to a war economy shall be rigidly controlled and restric- ted to Germany's approved post-war peacetime needs. Productive capacity not needed for permitted production shall be removed in accordance with the Reparations Plan, or destroyed. | j —At the earliest practicable * time the German economy shall be decentralised to eli- minate all cartels, syndicates, trusts and other monopolistic arrangements. 13 —In organising the German economy, primary emphasis shall be given to the develop- ment of agriculture and peace- ful domestic industries. i —During tI-3 period of oc- cupation, Germany shall be treated as a single economic unit. Common policies shall be established in regard to mining and industrial production, agri- culture, forestry and fishing, wages, prices and rationing, im- ports and exports, currency and banking, central taxation and customs, reparations, transport and communications. l C —Allied controls shall be ■ imposed on the German economy, but only to the extent necessary to carry out industrial disarmament, demilitarisation, and reparations, and to assure the production and maintenance of goods and services required to meet the needs of the Occupy- ing Forces, and Displaced Per- sons, and essential to maintain in Germany average living standards not exceeding the average standard of living of European countries (excluding the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union). Controls will also ensure equit- able distribution of essential commodities in the several zones, to produce a balanced economy throughout Germany and reduce the need for imports. Control will be imposed on German industry and interna- tional transactions to 1 prevent Germany from developing a war potential and achieving the other objectives named herein. All German public or private scientific bodies connected with economic activities will be con- trolled. 1 < —In the imposition and 1 v maintenance of economic controls, responsible German ad- ministrative machinery shall be created. 1 *T —Measures shall be promptly 1 * taken to effect essential re- pair of transport, enlarge coal production, maximise agricul- tural output, .and effect emer- gency repair of housing and essential utilities. 1 O —Appropriate steps shall be 1 ° taken by the Control Coun- cil to control and dispose of German-owned external assets. 1 Q —Payment of reparations 1 * should leave enough re- sources to enable the German people to subsist without exter- nal assistance. Means must be provided to pay for approved im- ports. The proceeds of exports shall be available 4n the first place for payment for such im- ports. The above clause will not apply to the equipment and products referred to in Paragraph 4 (a) and 4 (b) of the Reparations Agreement. POLAND On the Polish Provisional Government of National Unity, the Big Three defined their atti- tude in the following ,state- ment: — We have taken note with plea- sure of the agreement reached among representative Poles from Poland and abroad which nas made possible the formation oi a Polish Provisional Goveriimen of National Unity. The British and United States Governments have taken rn sures to protect the ihe Polish Provisional Govern ment in the property belong to Poland under their cont + ro1 ;. Facilities will be foment Polish Provisional Governme to exercise 0 ?nv nroDertv remedies te recover a yv provisional frontiers tu~ Three Powers expect that those Poles, including those in thA Polish Forces who return hnme shall be accorded personal £nH oroperty rights on the same basis as all Polish citizens. They note that the Polish Provisional Government has agreed to hold free elections as soon as possible and that re- presentatives of the Allied Press shall enjoy full freedom to report to the world on de- velopments in Poland before and during the elections. The final delimitation of the Western frontier of Poland should await the peace settle- ment. Pending that delimitation, the former German territories east of a line running from the Baltic Sea immediately west of Swine- munde, along the Oder River to the confluence of the Western Neisse River, and along tne Western Neisse to the Czecho- slovak frontier, including tnat portion of East Prussia not placed under the administration of the Soviet Union, and includ- ing the former Free City of Danzig, shall be under the ad- ministration of the Polish State. KONIGSBERG The Conference has agreed in principle to the ultimate transfer to the Soviet Union of the City of Konigsberg and the area ad- jacent to it. The President of the United States and the British Prime Minister have declared that they will support the pro- posal of the Conference at the forthcoming peace settlement. The Big Three proposals for the conclusion of peace treaties with former enemy countries are given fully ° n P a 9 e ■ The Potsdam Reparations pfan provides for exchanges between the British and American zones of occupation and that held by Russia.