Publication: Dundee Courier

Full Citation

  • Title Potsdam Decisions Mean Rigid Control of Germany
  • Publication Title Dundee Courier
  • Collection Dundee Courier
  • Date Friday,  Aug. 3, 1945
  • Issue Number 28757
  • Page Number 3
  • Place of Publication Dundee, Scotland
  • Language English
  • Document Type Article
  • Publication Section News
  • Source Library British Library
POTSDAM DECISIONS MEAN RIGID CONTROL OF GERMANY TO BE REDUCED TO AN AGRICULTURAL STATE Poland Gets Danzig And Oder-Niesse Line SPAIN SHUT OUT FROM FREE NATIONS WHILE RULED BY FRANCO Reduction of Germany to a mainly agricultural and self-support- ing ''State, with a carefully- balanced minimum of essen- tial imports and exports. Exclusion of Spain from the United Nations' Organisation while her present form of government continues. These are outstanding points in the report of the Berlin Big Three Conference issued last night. Conference established a council of Foreign Ministers to prepare peace treaties with the defeated countries, and to plan the peaceful settlement of Germany when a German Government adequate for the pur- pose is established. The council will be composed of the Foreign Ministers of the United Kingdom. Russia, China, France, and the .United States, with a high-ranking deputy for each to ensure continuity. It will normally meet in London, and the first meeting will be on or before September 1. A secretariat will be established permanently in London. Expert advisers will accompany members to council meetings which may be held in other capitals. Other matters besides the pea«.c settlements may be referred to the council by their Governments. CONTROL COUNCILS. Countries other than the five named may be invited to be represented when their affairs are under discussion, and France is to be included in the negotiation of the peace with Italy. China and France, who were not represented at Berlin, have been invited to join this council, but the Big Three of Berlin reserve the right to con- sult among themselves. The European Advisory Commission is dissolved and its work passed over to the Allied control councils in Berlin and Vienna. The Big Three stress that the conference has strengthened the ties linking their three Governments and renewed their confidence that the United Nations will go forward to create a just and enduring peace. Control Of Germany The report then sets out the political and economic principles that are to govern the treatment of Germany in the initial control period. The purpose of this agreement is to carry out the Crimea declaration on Germany. German militarism and Nazi-ism will be extirpated, and the Allies will take in agree- ment together, now and in the future, the other measures necessary to assure that Germany never again will threaten her neighbours or the peace of the world. It is not the intention of the Allies to destroy or enslave the German people. It is their intention that <he German people be given the opportunity to prepare for the eventual reconstruction of their life on a democratic and peaceful basis. If their own efforts are directed to this end it will be possible for them in due course to take their place among the free and peaceful peoples of the world. POLITICAL PRINCIPLES. Authority in Germany is exercised on instructions from their Governments by the Commanders in-Chief o£ the American, British, Russian, and French forces, each in his own occupation zone, and also jointly as members of the Control Council. So far as is practicable, there shall be uniformity of treatment of the German population throughout Germany. The purposes of the occupation are: — 1. The complete disarmament and de- militarisation of Germany and the elimina- tion or control of all German industry that could be used for military p>oduction. To these ends all German forces, the Gestapo, and all other military and quasi-military organisations, clubs and associations which serve to keep alive the military tradition in Germany, shall bo abolished and not revived. All munitions shall bo handed over or destroyed, and the production of aircraft and munitions shall be prevented/ r 2. To convince the German people thai they have suffered a total military defeal and cannot escape responsibility. 3. To destroy the National Socialist part> and all Nazi institutions, and prevent al Nazi and militarist propaganda. 4. To prepare for the eventful reconstruc tion of German political life on a democratic , basis and for eventual peaceful co-operation ' in international life by Ger nanv. All Nazi i laws which provided the basis of the Hitler : regime or established discrimination or grounds of race, creed or politics shall be abolished. 5. War criminals shall be brought to L judgment. Nazi leaders and any othei persons dangerous to the occupation or its I objectives shall be arrested and interned ; 6. All members of the Nazi party whc have been more than nominal participant! in its activities shall be removed from posi tions of responsibility and replaced bj ' persons deemed capable of assisting in de 5 velopinp genuine democratic institutions. ! 7. German education shall be so con trolled as completely to eliminate Nazi anc ' militarist doctrines and Jo make possible the successful development of democratic ! ideas. 8. The judicial system will be reorganiser 1 in accordance with the principles o: i democracy. t 9. The administration of affairs it i Germany should be directed towards de 1 centralisation of the political structure anc . development of local responsibility. ' ELECTIVE COUNCILS. j The report goes on to state that local self government shall be restored throughou Germany on democratic principles and it particular through elective councils. Al democratic political parties shall be allowec j and encouraged throughout Germany. : Representative and elective principles shal 3 be introduced into regional, provincial, anc i State (land) administration. > For the time being no centra] Germar ! government shall be established, but essentia r ccntral administrative departments unde ' State Secretaries shall be established, parti cularly in the fields of finance, transport, com i munications, foreign trade and industry . They will act under the direction of the 1 Control Council. Subject to the necessity for maintaininj . military security, freedom of speech, pres: ■ and religion shall be permitted, religious in ■ stitutions shall be respected, and trade , unions shall bo permitted. Ban On Arms Production To eliminate Germany's war potential the production of arms, ammunition, and imple menfcs of \dbi- and all types of aircraft and 1 seagoing sJßps shall be prohibited. Produc- tion of metals, chemicals, and machinery necessary to a war economy shall be rigidly controlled and restricted to Germany's ap- proved post-war peace time needs. Productive capacity not needed for per- mitted production shall be removed, in accordance with the reparations plan, or destroyed. At the earliest practicable date the German economy shall be decentralised to eliminate all cartels, syndicates, trusts, and othei monopolistic arrangements. In organising the German economy primary emphasis shall be given to the development of agriculture and peaceful domestic industries. ALLIED CONTROLS. During the period of occupation Germany shall be treated as a single economic unit Common policies shall be established in re gara to mining and industrial production, agriculture, forestry and fishing, wages, prices and rationing, imports and exports, currency and banking, central taxation and Customs, reparations, transport and communications. Allied controls shall be imposed on the German economy, but only to the extent necessary to carry out industrial dis- armament, demilitarisation, and reparations, and to assure the production and maintenance of goods and services required to meet the needs of the occupying forces and displaced persons and essential to maintain in Germany average living standards not exceeding the average standard of living of European countries (excluding the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union). SCIENTIFIC BODIES. Controls will also ensure equitable distribu- tion of essential commodities in the several zones, to produce a balanced economy throughout Germany and reduce the need for imports; control German industry and international transactions, to prevent Ger- many from developing a war potential, and of achieving the other objectives named herein; control all German public or private scientific bodies connected with economic activities. _ § In the imposition and maintenance of economic controls responsible German ad- ministrative machinery shall be created. Measures shall be promptly taken to effect essential repair of transporrt, enlarge coal production, maximise agricultural output, and effect emergency repair of housing and essential utilities. EXTERNAL ASSETS. Appropriate steps shall be taken by the Control Council to control and dispose of German-owned external assets. Payment of reparations should leave enough resources to enable the German peopie to subsist without external assistance. Means must be provided to pay for approved imports. The proceeds of exports shall be available, in the first place, for payment for such imports. REPARATIONS DECISIONS The following agreement on reparations was reached : — t Reparation claims of the U S.S.R. shall be met by rerqovuls from the zone of Germany occupied by the U.S.S.R, and German external assets U.S.S.R. undertakes to ettle the reparations claims of Poland from its cwn share of reparations. The reparation claims of the United States, United Kingdom said other countries entitled to reparations shall be met from the western zones, nnd oxtcrnal assets. The U.S.S.R. shall receive additionally from the western zones 15 per cent, of such usable and complete industrial capital equip nient from the metallurgical, chemical and machine manufacturing industries as is unnecessary for the German peace economy, in exchange for an equivalent value of food, coal, potash, zi nc - t<mb«r, clav products, and petroleum products; 10 per cent, of such industrial capital equipment as is un- necessary for the German peace economy to be transferred to the Soviet Government on reparations account, without payment or exchange of any kind in return. REMOVAL OF EQUIPMENT. The amount of equipment to be removed from the western tones on account of re pa rations must be determined within six months. Rt»fnovals of industrial capital equipment shall begin as soon as possible, and shall be completed within two years. The' delivery of products shall he made by the U.S.S.R. in instalments within five years, and deter- mination of the amount, and character of industrial capital equipment available for reparation shall be made by the Control Council—with the participation of France subject to the final approval of the com- mander of the zone from which the equip- ment is to be removed. Before fixing the total amount of equip- ment subject to removal, advance deliveries >hall be made as determined by the Control Council. The Soviet Government renounces all claims in respect of reparations to shares of German enterprises located in the western zones and German foreign assets in all countries except those specified in the fol- lowing paragraph. The Governments of the U.K. and U.S.A. renounce their claims in respect of repara- tions to shares of German enterprises located in the eastern zone and to German foreign assets in Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary, (Roumania, and Eastern Austria. The Soviet Government makes no claims to gold captured by the Allied troops in Germany. j Konigsberg : For Soviet The conference has agreed in principle to j the ultimate transfer to the Soviet Union of the city of Konigsberg and the area ad- jacent to it. The President of the , United States and the British Prime ( Minister have declared that they will sup- j port the proposal of the conference at the , forthcoming peace settlement. The conference agreed io principle on , arrangements for the use disposal of the surrendered German Fleet and t merchant ships. The three Governments will appoinl . experts to work out detailed clans, and wil publish a further joint statement simul j taneousl.y in due oourse. ! WAR CRIMINALS. The three Governments reaffirm theii intention to bring the major war criminals whose crimes have no geographical localisa , tion, to swift justice. They hope the 4 negotiations in London will result in speed\ agreement bein~ reached, and regard it a: a matter of great importance that the tria j of these major criminals should begin a , the earliest possible date. The first list o defendants will be published before Sept. 1 1 New Polish State t i On the Polish Provisional Government o 1 National Unity the Big Three definec 3 their attitude as follows: — We have taken note with pleasure of thi ] agreement reached among representativi j Poles from Poland and abroad which ha made possible the formation of a Polisl n Provisional Government of National Unity I The British and United States Govern r ments have taken measures to protect th< interest of the Polish Provisional Govern t ment in the property belonging to Polant under their control, and have taken measure, j to prevent alienation to third parties of sue! property. Facilities will be given to th< , Polish Provisional Government to exercise t ordinary legal remedies to recover am . property belonging to Poland which maj , have been wrongfully alienated. The Three Powers expect that those Poles, including those in the Polish Forces who return home shall be accorded personal and property right on the same basis as all Polish citizens. They note that the Polish Provisional Government has agreed to hold free elections as soon as possible, and that re- presentatives of the Allied press shall enjoy > full freedom to report to the world on . developments in Poland before and during 1 the elections WEST FRONTIER. The final delimitation of the western frontier of Poland should await the peace settlement. Pending that delimitation, the former German territories east of a line . running from the Baltic Sea immediately west of Swinemunde, along the Oder rivei ( to the confluence of the western Neisse , liver, and along the western Neisee to the ' r Czechoslovak frontier, including that portioi , of East Prussia not placed under the ad , ministration of the Sioviet Union, and in | eluding the former free city of Danzig, shall be under the administration of the Polish State, and should not be considered as part of the Soviet zone of occupation in Germany. Peace Treaty For Italy The conference agreed upon the following statement of common policy for establishing conditions of lasting peace:— The three Governments consider it desir- able that the present anomalous position of Italy, Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary, and Rumania hsould be terminated by the con- clusion of peace treaties. They trust that the other interested Allied Governments will share these views. For their part the three Governments have included the preparation of a peace treaty for Italv as the first among the tasks to be undertaken by the new Council of Foreign Ministers. The conclusion of peace with a recognised and democratic Italian Govern- ment will make it possible for the three Governments to support an application from Italy for membership of the United Nations. EX-ENEMY STATES. The three Governments have also charged the Council of Foreign Ministers with the tasks- of preparing peace treaties for Bul- garia, Finland, Hungary, and Rumania. The three Governments could then support applications from them also for membership ot the United Nations. Meanwhile they will examine the establishment of diplomatic re- lations with the four countries named. Re- presentatives of the Allied press will enjoy full freedom to report to the world upon de- velopments in those countries. As regards the admission of other States into the United Nations organisation, Article 4 of the Charter of the United Nations de- clares : — " Membership in the United Nations is open to all other peace-loving States who accept the obligations contained in the pre- sent Charter and, in the judgment of the organisation, arc able and willing to-carry out those obligations. The admission of any such State of membership will be effective by a decision of the general assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council." KNOCK FOR FRANCO. The three Governments will support ap- plications for membership from neutral States which fulfil the qualifications set out above. But they feel bound to make clear that they would not favour any application for mem- bership put forward by the present Spanish Government, which, having been founded with the support of the Axis Powers, does not, in view of its origins, its nature, its record, and its close association with the aggressor States, possess the qualifications necessary to justify such membership. The disposition of any former Italian terri- tories will be decided in connection with the preparation of a peace treaty with Italy, and the question of Italian territory will be considered by the Council of Foreign Ministers in September. TRANSFER OF GERMANS. On the removal of Germans from Poland. Czechoslovakia, and Hungary, the confer- ence agree t_lia.t any transfers that take place should be effected in an orderly and humane manner The Allied Control Council in Ger many should first examine the problem with regard to the question of equitable distribu- tion of these Germans in the several zones. They are accordingly instructing the Con- trol Council to submit an estimate of the time and rate at which further tranfsers could be carried out, having regard to the present situation in Germany. T he Czechoslovak and Polish Governments and the Control Council in Hungary are being requested meanwhile to suspend further expulsions. During the conference there were meetings between the chiefs of staff of the three Governments on military matters of common interest. The report is signed as approved by •T. V. Stalin, Harry S. Truman, and C. R. Attlee, and among the list of delegations which follow are the names of Mi Attlee and Mr Churchill, Mr Eden and Mr Bevin.