Full Citation

  • Title Text of Secretary of War Henry Stimson's diary from 7/16-7/24/1945 in which he details proceedings at the Potsdam Conference in Germany between Soviet General Secretary Joseph Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and President Harry S. Truman to negotiate terms for the end of World War II
  • Classification Level Omitted
  • Imprint [United States: Department of Defense, 1945]
  • Declassified Date July 7, 2005
  • Sanitization Unsanitized
  • Completeness Complete
  • Collection U.S. Declassified Documents Online 2017
  • Pages 17
  • Language English
  • Document Type Memo
  • Source Library Department of Defense
07-JUL-2005 COPY FROM MANUSCRIPT DIV. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS D3 *I*- _ * . ,- . . , . . . - - - -.g . - - - . - ' " ...... ". ""- - w--------- - .- .. . -. :.. . . . ".." ... " . . . .* --: " . . . . " . " . - 't .' ' " " ' - S.4 . wo .4.il . . ,n__*h..m.: ., oo.;o *," * . . * ._ '" . . "- " '. . .. . --7.4 .. .. " - .; . 2 . -- d,,,. .. . ,.. . .: . * . ~, u y .. l94. .----.. . 4 -.. 4-; . - :, " . " in rejmaqhri. the probien of ATzrW#'3* -rethik ±. the adawer to the-- pr- thqeS.tatqk -Dsprtmnt 4 the_ B uhi', yii; proteo~toTikte 1 rimft1e, 13elgjul, and Holland, akd a -total eiaion df the Rubx! from ,Ge ., *no nwst%Ll:n ez4 ee;lgtm: . . " "4 " - .-At. 7:-3q0 PM jhaA Qhl a. P,Xrs t~sg oo~ h. t5t.t he * S-1 bomb arrived aud-I1 took it at once to tihe President, is -ouse -MI dww~ '". ". - 4d . -.4- -oco "se w ere4 & , tee . .. ".. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..". ".4 information was still. in irerj generia tet'me.- J went to the.jWhite HouSe for a oonferene with Byrnes ear4 i± S the mofift. -'. We first, disosedmatkJ ds of -,hann'.' -aer. " - was oppoiwd to a- Iwri-oJ whicoh-I-had .first-iggeitdki -.. - He outlined a on the sabject warnig which appentl,y had been - .agreed to by the President, so I presed it fio"further. I I ed.e on his the ip !tawdef -the*t, Dn connection wihStalin'sa now pressure a~ omrii rights in *iuckuriap aAd4 advised that &V'o lkim, 'for - h-*. t. e d- ve- . p- exolutYe-r ght should be: fimly .opposed,. I dsodrilbed'o, hm the dovelop- went qf the Open Door and the'Nine Power Teaty. -yrns evidently accepted-.. " that advice. a d' I- th6n- diusse with him the.papers" o .Germany whioh', ha been'uitedintOom PP_ 044bA o9 Wlied 6ur -positiion'taken in' thepapr, bift a05. th p . o which would !zome from tl% o territorial ..ion... ".' - - . ." .. Geroft Ra i . - - - gai.a e -." . 4.- ..-..~ . . -- . . :: ; , -.-- -.----- -.* _7 " ... . _.." __-___- .. ..;. - ** _..--- .:i: .=: _ _ . ._ .. , ...= . ... .... ..- . . ... p P7-JUL-2005 COPY FROM MANUSCRIPT DIV. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS D3 hundred. and- f,. - 'contrasted t.,t -1%- %s. .".-.. t erritoka" r.esis reaed dn* theh eaty-or V m'sil,Ia.- w1pi: he.". Virug th 'gaevn',m Moaj thi th----DpTeVqqof!oba ....... t6r*&'h Fai& w'( ith * n.d I took -a .trip to Beiin, go:sk ." - * , - -" -" *%ougfi ifie pX!inGi-pftl parts --of tho'city. I Pap d1str6ss6d-at the, pictur;e and. the oi'.ooW Um i dead 'city -except- for or homeleso piqlA.going. ;tm. pUoe t'o p1mce v.th'al1 their wor1ly"gods --- .. . . " " , -----.. ." " " pushed by thed in ttle carts, babY cazrTaes, "bicyc les, etqt..In-the * * in- to 0 ake -j)vsab1#-;11L -streets...." .- .. . .. - . - - -~~~~ -.re tumed to Potsdam AnXr lunched wit"h- ltlime Vi4nster,.Attlee., "'and MLord Leathers,-&W4 .lh l-"ire'.R otohers were -ii t14" jab"icrli4 g * - his* dager 1o1.7 Itd ,_.- W" aa .... i.gA -lnho .6qus "ehil an"-.d At- were t*p two- . .b apEenl g- th bet'f1roltr n er.p"a'ra el6 u at ead h-oher, *-We haa adI cotatd e ath afhi . ch other 'ein q*i- reboees.-o or.7wched w -udthe frat-o Vei e.a Cv- * Lad- I praj lo -". - *' . ., . .. . .. -va - . 7... 9e...- - the dt.ribuqoi.Of tthe doit.. ~Ugehniitbr z thei - a4a Mdtr0440 atkhe it o.... . .. goin oos hwd t.er p"shed by thea n little cat,aycarag. bicycs, et.--'I-e o.b :..:.- * . w.o e. o - .C e-h--','- .-Jte *- . .- .. 07-JUL-2005 COPY FROM MANUSCRIPT DIV. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS D' . 1 bad _ ,l . q t mitt. . . - . . .0 S n, t - A . -.ot heard foa. is, - di pe. the .er.:. H wast.ense. iitenibtaeand qreat1ly--heered up, -but wis st,omgly -nlndagai=stWWn dsclosure. I -ar&ua. agaijat thle to-pm 1 ___- ___ _ - ___ ___.. . * . .... e. ha-no t fdiit i and had a' shot rest and mae- . to -dinner h h . th Prsd- The guests at. th i King.and Leahy,, toggether-aLth- mim of VaeJ-~ ~ Lrr I~i -GeneralVaugh6n, two maval'aldeo,Aons of publie Relations 4d yosalb. -others. Itwas rather dis'app. itig b ey had a string qiartet on the -*pxz4 . _ ...rig at u--.e-ha -ndw w at.. .. , ",: . : -. through thw dinner -so- .... -had no oPiortunity to talk. H6wvrs_ -I- i4le that, was"t e wny the Presidint --- rested Uelf, ie He was, enitid, to d0i it. Thb.Preldeit, hwever, told me ba i3he Or his fir0tWmeVig lidiU5Salin and said hd -th6ot - . - had .oliAhed the Open Door in .n.hu1J_. " " -I h.n-- . 'qt-bimk-t0-6WXWsi1 T GiiWa" l .....y .... "]d.$ng, and-ot heea-,--4 .d-me-of e-.the-tuatton th-Gefida-iLL .z .. .1 . . ... " ," ... ..- : - . . 94 . . - * , . . * " " -, " ~Weesedayi .:l 8 A;"', Jul _ -a me gi'ii a .wof he far reachU-. Aeta&l of the iesit. I it OnCe..tObk;j.14; to the president, wh4 -ws igh _-- £ .:. .. _-. _... :-. .:..: - . . .. --* ' .... -_ ........ .. . . *. * . - , _- .- .. . * . . . . a vJ *8_404ident- O.Oswlw - the open-Door a.l-. A wook-- ailon _.. h J.Vpo x,tmue 4--.- . " - . . .. w r t-he. .07-JUL-2005 COPY FROM MANUSCRIPT DIV. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS D3 4- . - .- . 2 no misunderstinding over the meaing of t e general expressions. The President was evidently vVrv greatly reenforced over-the message from H aarrison zfnd said he was ver.glad I had come to the meeting. I then rent for a valk and v66ppinf(wfth Redloy and Bundye - In the -afternoon after a rest -I had a long talk ith mcGloy and Bundy. We were all troubled y the was E of time in getting informe-. tion about what is going on. Informal as well as formal conferencet are being-held, -a.n&-ve-havG-to rait until. they are fkiished and then 6cG14 - gets hold of pome one of the State Department subordinates "ho has. been present finds out from him vhat has happened and then brings it to noc . So, on ricOloy'r insistence, I decided to go to sceByrnes and see whether I could not get admittance for McClcy into the conferences there other Lzist . Secretaries were present. Thlhrsdo.3T., SYul%1 19 12Y5-U Shortly after nine orclock -. went arouud to the LItt1 fiue Hous6 and sa BrY3eF- in :epect to this matter of havin U 0Cloy. P=-tiaipate in the Conference. - He told me that in regard to the fornal Ganferenc6 there -'had been-a--lit7tplaeed -on each-nation-bringlng no-O aht o -he ipers, and that that would. cut out the possibility of bringing in NMloy. i told - him I lmeK-of-a-great many-ifoFrmal eonferences-ef,Iie Stat -'Department Sub- ordinates going on aua asked him if he had my objection to MeCloy going-to. those. He said he.had not and. gave him his blessing. I then asked him about minutes - if any minutes were' e1pt bf the meetings whioh I coud have the ..privilege _of-oking over, ;26%aaid that there were nonzi; .that -they--were not - being written up untJl the interpreters. had finished at the end of th6- 15-JUL--2005 COPY FROM MANUSCRIPT DIV. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS D2 - - - -- - - . ° -- -_ -Th-.sd u3z 19... - Conference. So my meeting with bim was rather i barren one. He gives me ig he is huggi4g matters in Mhs Conference pretty cl.ose t to his booam, and that 4 assistancey while geneira_lywe-_om - tr * Id in the matters in which it should be given. 7 * .1 returned to the hoube "ld found Gen6ral Clay -there and haa a conference wi:th him and [cCloy. He had just arrived at Potudam and it is very interesting to talk with him about his probidms which he is handling in a masterly fashion. Later igneral Hilldring came in and the main topic of the feeding. of the Germans in the UnAted States area in Belin was brought up. It is a difficult problim ad. aUtus has arisen in it. ,- At twelve o 1cl6ck lord Cherwell called,. and he- and -Bundy-and--I - ..,. sat out under the trees and talked over S-I. He was very reasonable on the subject of notification to the Russians, feeling about as doubtful as we. He reported Churchill as being much pleased ith our luncheon together last - - Monday and much cheered by the talk. After lunch at two o'clock Field Marshal Alexander and Field Marshal Sir Henry Wilson came in. The main subject of their call was'the appoint- ment -of Colonel James H. Douglas to be the American member of the Italian Control dommission. There had been delay and some complications &bout it and Alexander reported that there had been news reports which had been embarrass--- ing to the present incumbent, Aimiral Stone. He thereupon prdposed a solution by sggesting that Douglas ;ome out on a visit of inspection preparatory to assilng the duties of the office, and- invited him to stay with him. Then he would t k office later in September.. This was agreed to and the telegrams - _N 15-JUL-2005 COPY FROM MANUSCRIPT DIV. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS D2 - .1 . _ t . - - - - -,. T-1Iez-*iA were draww-up and CanLt. I talked over with -Alexander. hie' campaipns +a.'-- t%al and complimented him on their success which seemed to-please him. i~t is the. firl3t time i had mest him )ersona11j_jh_h&vng-een-z-bI~~ M-W5e__ * - - -L-visited both. Arica- a&d Itif Xy. WZi " a]& over the 'episddes of Tito . and deGal1e in theii incursio4s,* into Italy . . ...'_ * Later. in the afternoon at a. quater to five McCloy, Bundy, and I had a long and interesting discussion on our relations with Russia; what the cause of the constant differences between the countries are, and how to avoid them. As a result, I dictated a memorand7m on the subject 1o serve as . sort of analysis and possible- basis for action. It boiled down to the possibility of getting the Russia s.t o iee that the real basis bf the evil was the absence of freedom:of speech in their regime, and the iron-bound rdle ' .-tl iW"P lave been very- much impressed on this visit with the atmos- phere of repression that-exists--everywhee, and Whch-is felIt by all who come -in c6ntact with the Russian rule in Germany. While the Rua P ian soldiers and American soldiers seem to like each other individually when they meet, the people who have to deal with the Russian officials feel very differentiy, and it .greatly impairs the cooperation between our -two countries, Churchill is " very ramkt about it, and most of our people who have seen the Russians most intimately think we have been too easy and that they have taken advantage-of it,-" - - . .It is a. very difflcult' problem becaud th0y7re cISaders for their " own sysBtem-amddspiclouiW or'4.veii"~d outside trying to interfere with it.' At -the same time it" .p b_e_keo mure and more.evident to me that a uAtion whose system iests upon free speech.and all the elements of freedom, as does ours, cannot be sure of getting on permnent4, with a nation where .speech is strictly ofitrolled and where the Governxment uses the iron land of the secret police. - 0- 15-JUL-2005 COPY FROM MANUSCRIPT DIV. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS D2 - - .. * -.. . . .................. . The question is very important just now, a4d the devb1-opment of8-1 is bringing it to a,focus. I am beginning to feel that our posmittee which_ '? - met in Washington on this subject and wa3 so set uyon opening communications Today' s talk with ReCIoy and Buidy was a- good .one and. opened up the situation. - - ' Friday, July 20, 1945. In the morning George Patton arrived with General Floyd L. 'Parks who is the Commander of the district here. Patton had flown up from his headquarters near Munich to see me. We went out a little before noon and reviewed the 8econd Armored Division whose tanks were drawn up on the side of the road facing the roadway like a line of soldiers for I should say con- - d 6-dM -6-oeka mile- - Geral Patton went with me in -reviewing car past the line of-tanks together with*General-Parks, McCloy, Bundy, and I Kyle. We drove in a half track. car up. and. down. the line and it was a very impressive sight. At luncheon we had as guests Patton and Parks, Major Murnane .and Captain Hayo who were respective aides to the.generals. Immediately after lunch we hurried off v4th the a i company to Lhei ttle White House where we joined th..Presidential procession into "6rlin. There the President raised the flag at the Headquarters of .the American Control~ ,7 Group.lu tW-Air Defense buildings. It was an impres s 7eremony. It was the same flag I saw.raised a year ago in the Palze Venetzia in Rome. Next * time it will be Tokyo. Nisephower a M Bradley were also present and I had a. pleasant chat -with e&h of them after the show was over. C.. 25-JUL-2005 COPY FROM MANUSCRIPT DIV. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS D: -- .. ---*. e r, ," . _ _ 0 9 A - . - " - . . We then retuined to the how)uMd Ambassador Hai,rlman soon came 1 in on aW invitation-to talk over- the .subject. .of oir r'elatbns WIth Russia which Mcclo Bundy. .and I were discussing last'evenijTg. I showed- him the paper which I had dictated on the importance of getting freedo of speech - to getk the Russians accustomed to the thought of doming .to- hat one- of the Bill of Rights which in my opinion is the most important of all. Harriman read thi paper abd. said- th the--analysis of the reason fot the differences -were-in -hi Op ?.x --borreC" 13u1 he was,pessimistic . s to the. chances of getting Russia to ohan& -er sfptem in zf way. He has been in Russia now for near3,v four years and has grou&4dently depressed and trobled by tle s " ituation. I" talked_with h.im.SQ A long t"e.regarding the. matter and, in ir.of hin~tealligence and. capacity, such a deapairiiig view* from him tio-iAled -me a great deal. General Cannon came in. He is in charge of the Army Air Forces in the E.T.O. He offered guidance and information as to any explorations I wished to inke in Germany to see conditions. ... e in thafternoon -Alen-Dulles--trned :up and I had a ahort talk with him.c- 'Ie has been in the OSS in Switzerland and has been the aenter'of Smuch underground inform&tion.-He,. told us about something which had recently, eie into him with regard to Japan. - - - -"- -- 2 i . .. ... & L J- - I got up and found zV604e!4.ther Stallea with not much to do so I oleired a talked to Rmdy. *0 d _u_ _Patton. who UP my gope 0 _4vme. tersal wt to' pay hsres'peets,* I 'then #etated zV noctesar~d alisoangidfofu4l. conferences with the Pj siA.nt,BYt hrhl n frhU 15-JUL-2005 COPY FROM MANUSCRIPT DIV. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS D2 . . 7 . - * -.- - -. . P a e 2 . - Aeven thirty-fivi e eka'Gosv special rop celvedAW special -owrier. It was an immenelr powerful document, e1ear "and well written and with supporting documents of the highest importance. It gave a pretty full anAf ei.quent report -of the tremendous suicess of the test and revealed far greater destructive powet than we expected in S-1. S..... - -...................... -:.. *-.- %11 I was reading it with, B undyj. Jqooeph E. Davies came in'by appoixtment. and. I h.ad to bf6ak off and discuss with him matters purely r4lated to a call of courtesy. I talked with him of the character of the Russians is he had -- observedL_tJds -Ambasaars,bip-In Russia. and hi iFas a_lhttl bit more enouraging than Hariman. But I had to break away ap quickly as I could in order to get back to the reading of the report. ,I made an appointment with the President. for as soon as he could see me, which was at three-thirty. Meanwhile I had lunch and talked with General Clay and General. Echols over their work in solving.-the economic- problem ih Gernaty At three ofclook I foun-d that Marshall had returned from the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and to save time I hurried to his house and had -hjz- r;ead Groves$ report and conferred with him about it. I then 'went to the "Little White Housen and saw president Truman. I asked -him to call iA Secretary Byrnes and then I read the report in its* entirety and we then discussed it. They were immensely pleased. The President.' was tremendously pepped up by it and spoke to me of it-agan-and-ada-n won I saw him. He said it gave him an entirely new feeling of confidence ar 'fie * thaPed me for having come to the Conference and being present to help im 'in 15-JUL-2005 COPY FROM MANUSCRIPT DIV. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS D. a-, - - - ' *- " -* .. - 1. then left the OLittle White Hue, ikdu-udi t "- to tje- pi,iuj. Miii.ter' a house where we eoufprred.with him and Lord Cherwell. I turned over the paper to Churchili and,he began reading it but was interrupted * . --._- a few minutes before five in order- to hurry 1to-the Big. Three Conference.at five ovclock. He asked me to return on the following iorning to finish up - -- - ..Massage and dinner, and then in the evening about ten-thirty two short eables--came .in from Harrison indicating that operations would be _rRady-earl1ier - then e3Wecte , anid also asking me. to reverse Irq d4cision as to one of-the proposed topics. I cabled, saying .1 saw no new factors for revers-" ing myself but on the contrary the new factors .seemed to confirm it ' Sunday, July22. 19_," Called on President Trman at nine-twenty.-- The foregoing -day I- had left with him mW paper on reflections as to our relations with Russi, -copy of which is hereto attached. I had told him that this paper was in no sense an official paper - that it did not even contain my matured opinions, but that it represented an analysis l_ ish. l thought? was correct and a program bf what I hope4 might sometime be done . With that understanding he asked 4. to see it and I left it with him and this morning I picked it up. He gave - *It I:o me imd'stated that he he# read it anid agroed with it. " I also discussed with .him Harrison's two messages, He was intensely pleased by the accelerated timetable. As to-the matter of the special target whiah I had refu*ed to permit, he strongly confirmed %W view and said he felt Wy 15-JUL-2005 COPY FROM MANUSCRIPT DIV. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS D; - " . . . ... .... - - At --I .. . .. . - Chmicil read Groves'. report in full. He told me :thatli e had-nOticed- at the .meeting 'of *te Three yesterday that Truman was evidently mdah ."""-" fortified by something that had happened and that he stood up to the" -dvsvemmr -tllekr o4 -0 e-ksn that they.. aOboltel cou-ld otheandithat the- tdate wasc i " entiE -gainst them. He *;aid I-liw I know.w&Lt-happened to Truman yester-: _._d_, I.couldn.'. t nderstand IA%. When hegai_Y _%hemed t, f-ter-hav'ng-rea&- -- . this report he was a changed man. He told the Russians just where they got __ on and off and .geaerally bossed the whole mestingn. Churchill aid" he now understood how this pepping up had taken place and that he felt the same way. *. I . . ... . His 01n attitude oo firmed this admission. He now not only -wan 0f worried- . ;bout giving the Russians information of the matter, but was rather inclined to use it as an argument in our favor in the .negotiatio'b. The sentiment - of the four of us was un"d us in .thinki:ag that it was advisable to tell theI "" Russians. at least that we were working on that axbJect anid intended to use' it.| -I.---'- ~ - "g' l-'-- At twelVe-fifteen called General Arnold over, showed him Harrison, s two cables, showed him my answer to them and showea him Groves# report, wch he read in ires porttnlqty. lie told me that he agreed_with-md-out tie-4aget- ..N heh I-thad struck off the program. y e said that it would take considerdble hard-irk to rgat e the olel tons, no that it was to move i ttJw as ./ After luncheon and rest, at khee-fifty we took an- ato.r ive.u- the very battad city ofPotadam. Captain G. T. Cwhelia ee with us as a 07-JUL-2005 COPY FROM MANUSCRIPT DIV. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS D Sunday, July 22,; 19_45. 4, S - -. guide, and the party consisted Of Bundy, YleA, Krepa; Cabell. and,E yself. In the evening ye had the usual movies. The daily massage wbich I have been, having every afternoon just before ainner has been a great. success in :ceeping me going. At ten occlock Secretary Byrnes called me up -asking me as to the tiLung" of the S-1i program. I told him the effet of the tuo cables and that I r.ould try to get further definite newis. I dictated a cable to Harison askntg him to let-vs knos immediately rhen the time vas f ixed. - At ten-fifteen Ambasiador Harriman arrived dnd he and UcCloy, Bundy, and I had a talk over the situation, Harriman giving us the izforma- tion of yesterday afternoonFs meetings. He commented on the increasing cheerfulness evidently caused by the neus from us, and confirmed the expanding demadds being made by the Russians. They are throwing aside all their previous restraint as't-being only i Continental power and not interested in any. further acquisitions, and are now apparently seeking t.o branch in .all direc- tions. Thus they have not oi2y been vigorously se k ng to eAtend their - inf-luence in Poland, Auatria, Rumaniap and Bulgariap but they are seeking bases i in Turkey and now are putting in demands for the Italian colonies in the " J t Mediterranean and elsewhere. Hd told us that Stalin had brought up yesterdiay o the question of 'Korea 1g4ali aid was urging an -imuediate trusteeship. The "Bri .. .:.he F rench a .e re'Iing to consider a trufte gahi -H_onong long a-a.- -. SIn4o-China, nd' I foresee that f thAt is cntiued the Russians wil probably drop their pr.oppe7afor trusteehip o' Lorea and ask f_lw.ontrolzof-it. 07-JUL-2005 COPY FROM MANUSCRIPT DIV. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS D: .- . t.." C-- V.'{ 5 - ..MoM4y, jly 23L .At eleyen o1clook I went down to the "Little .White House!r to try- to .see tfie President or Byrnes. 3: am.finding uVTse3X orippled by not know- inj what happens in the meeting's in the late afternoon -and evening. This - is particula:ly so now- that -the _ogram for S-I is tying In iuihat we are - .- i ..e. When - . o in all field.there 1 fond Byrnbs out, and-I asked -for the President rho saw me at once. I told him that it would be much more conenient for me to form my.program on the military side if I could drop in* early every morning and talk with him or Byrnes of the.evene of the precoding day. -te told me at onta9 ome; that ho would be glad to see me every morning and talk over these matters with me. I then told h.a of matters that came up in the conference Tzith Mr. Harrinan -this morning which I- just referred to and told him that I h4d sent for further mor definite informa- tlon a& td the time of operation from Harrisono He told me that he hnd the warning message which we Mred oi his desk, and had accepted our most recent hange in it, and that he propo8ed to.shoot it -out Ps soon as he heard thWdefinte-dayof the operation. We had a brief discuapion abput Stalin' f recent expansions ind he crnfirmed what I have heard. But he told mse. that * - the United Stttes *ais -staiding-firm and &n) i plareptly relying' greatly upon the informatibn as to S-i. He evidently thinks a good deal of the ner claims of th6 Russihns'are bluff, and told me what he thought the real elaims- were confined to. After lunch- and a short rest I received Generals Marshall and --Arin6d; and i"-in MCloy and-BUTud-at the conference. The President had. told me at a meeting in the -oiw~ l. anxi6us to' know whether M atITwoiiiieded the Rwsian;in--the war or' whether -we could iet * - 07-JUL-2005 COPY FROM MANUSCRIPT DIV. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS D: _ oa%.Jul 43 1-- ..4 Pale 3 along without themi,. and ihat vzas one of the -a,.jects we taked'overe Of * o) . . ' " course Mar'shall could not answer directly or explicitly.' We had desired the Russians to come into the war originally for the sake of. holding uip in- Uanchuria-the Japanese MAchufhian Army. That now'was being accomplished.- as the Russians have amassed their forces and were 'poised, and the Japanese were moving up positions in their Army. But pointed out that even if we went ahead in the 'ar vithout the Russia=. ' and eompsled the Japanese to surrender to ou terms, that 'ould no' -Fevont -- the Russians from marching into L%nchuria anyhow and stri1ing, thus permitting them to get virtually what they wanted in the surrender terms. P-larsha1l . told us during our conference that he thought thus far in the military coA- ference they had handled only-the British problems and that these arc pracitically al settled now and probably would be-tied up and finished to- morrow He sUggested that it might be' a kogd thing. something which vould 08cal the Russians to a decision one way or the other, if the President. ould say o Stalin tomorrow that vinasmuch as the British have finished and are going home, I suppose I might as- well - let the American Chiefs o k Staff go auay alsot that might bring the Russians to make knotm what their position was and what they were going to do, and of course that Indicated *tbt Marshall felt as I felt sure he would that now with our new weapon we would not need the assistance of the Russians .tb conquer Japan. There was further "talk about the war in the Pacific in the con- ference. Appargntly they have been. finding it very hard to get along Wmth UaoArthur", and Marshall has bden 44 ing most of his time in ovferences in smoothirig down the. Navy *-- 07-JUL-2005 COPY FROM MANUSCRIPT DIV. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS D: " - / " o ,:_gUlv 23, 194, " I talked to Marshall about the preparation of S-i and. he. gave us a bad picture of the raizy season w6ither in Japan at this time and said that one thing that misht militate against our. atUck.was the low ceiling and. heavy Clo-udsp although the~ ere br-uF --Snd g00d. days in between. After the conference I took a short drive:tith Clonel Kyle pacompanied by CaptaLn.p!%bil14,. Avss:Lana.nterpreter- -past-the -P0sdeM7-Mr-.. - shaioing yards to- the Schloss Cocilienhof. Thi4 Schloss was vhere the meetings of the pr-49nt Conferenoe were held. The dive vas a refreshing one, In the evening -1 received a telegram from Harrison giving re the exact dates as far as possible when they expacted to have S-1 ready;, and I answered it with a further question as to further f.turo dates of the posgibilir- of accumulation of supplies. At nine-twenty I vent to t"The Little rihite House" and ras at onca shoun 'into the -resident f5 room vhere - he vas Qlone with his w6rk, and he toLd me about the events of y6sterday's meeting with which he seemed-to be ve.y, well zdt'sfied I then.tWA-hR Of_,my onference with ffarshai and the *imPlication thWt-Could be inferred as t~o his feeling that the Russians Were not needed. I also told the President of the question which.marshll had suggested might be put to Stalin as to the- Americans going hoa4ev aOi he'Edid that he would do that this afternoon at the end of the hearing, but he told me that there.had.been..a m6eting.0lled -by. Lehy of the Military Staff's to-meet either this afternoon or I think-tomorrow morning. The Presidegnt was -fra#k'about his. desire to close- the Conference " .. and get away.. He t0' me*Churchl was g6ing away- Wedn..Ay and VaS . - oe-ngi. ..n 07-JUL-2005 COPY FROM MANUSCRIPT DIV. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS D -.baert priday, and that he hoped to get the whole' thing closed up aztd('&et away -;*-- .j--.J1A r '~os~~ ~ either Sunday or Monday. I told him that I thought I had "done. all that I could see in sight, and that -as Cliurphill was going away, I was thinking of going down to.see PattonlS troops -in Bavaria--fo--a dWiy or so ai-the-. if-he did not telegraph me that he would like me to come back, I thought I __rouJl_go_an_ home. -.He-oaid -that- arrangement-was perfedtly a T brl-to-hm " ...... and, 4f he ranted to have me come. back, he would let me know at Pattones. I then showed him the teleg!am which had come last evening fJom garrison giving the dates of :the operations. He said that was just uhat he wanted, i_he was highly delighted and that it gave him his cue: for hit rarning, He said he had just sent his warning to Chiang Kai-shek to eoe if he vou.d join in it, and as soon -as that was cleared by Chiang he, Truman, would release the warnirg and that would fit right in time with the irogram re had received from Harrison. I then spoke of the importange uhich I attributed t6 the r°eassuranco of the Japanese on the continuance of their dynasty,, and I had fIlt that the insertion of that iii the formal warning was important and might be just the" thlng that would make or mar their acceptance, but tbat I had tward from Bynes that they preferred not to put it'in., and that nou such a chande was made impossible by the sending of the, message to Chiang. I hoped that the -President would watch carefully so that the Japanese might be reassured verbally thpough diplomatic channels. if it was found -that they were-hanging fire on that one point. He said that he had that .I mind, and that he would take care of it; - We had a. few wds mo=.hout the S-.l. program, and I again- g&veA*m-......- mq-3zaeons for ta4dmnatlnk n -otib propb-bed tkjige_gi He iin-iiiteratid'- P07-JUL-2005 COPY FROM MANUSCRIPT DIV. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS D2 Tuesday, Juiy 2A, j945 . * * Lage32 with the utmost emphasis his-own -coriig tellif on'that -tJ(ii-t, ariWhe was particularly emphatic in -ag eeing with my suggestion that if .elimia- tion was not done, the bitterness .which would be caused by such a-vMaton act might mdke it impossible during the long post-war period to reconcile - -.- - - - - " .- a' -X- - . .. t s.. . .-. ..- . ' ...." . .. u__n~a~ .e Y!LiWh Russians. It miglit - thus, IpoAinted qRtq be.2bhe means of ..r.eventing. 'what-our policy debn&P-- nqy a sympathetic Japan to the United States-in case the should be any aggression by Russia in ianchuria. T le,dnesday,-july' 25 14 'fnis morning I lbarned that I had been invited to meei Stalin at his quarters at the meeting place of the Conference, so 1ith jjr. Page cho acted as my interpreter I went thre at twelv6-fifteei. 'ie 17ere uskred in -.the--ShiOss' Cecilienhof where the conferences have taken place, and on my way to Stalin's room.1 passed through the .conference room where one of the intermediary conferences was-aready taking place. Plolotov uho as. there greeted me and also Airei Gromyko., the Russian Ambassador to the Unitet St.tes. Holotov introduced a Mr. Pavlov.who was alsq'th6re. After just a few words with them I xent on through some.more dorridOr unti;L I vas ushered into StAlints room. He came and -greeted" me coroally and showed me a seat it front of his desk-where he then took his seat, ind. I had' a short taik with him, the minutes of which I afternrds dictated ind which are attached hereto. Stalin impressed me as older than I thought he would look' and the imprespive part of him vii~ a very large head. I then went back tb luach and Immediately after lunch we took the_- 0-54 for MuIch. On -arrival there I was met -by GedUrA PWix did General