Impact of hte Quiet Revolution: the business environment of smaller cities and regions of Quebec 1960-2000

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Author: Joseph LeMay
Date: Fall-Winter 2002
From: Quebec Studies(Vol. 34)
Publisher: American Council for Quebec Studies
Document Type: Article
Length: 4,949 words

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The Province of Quebec has changed significantly in the economic, social, and political areas since the advent of the Quiet Revolution. This paper is an analysis of the fundamental changes that have occurred in the Quebec business environment since the early sixties. This research looks in particular at changes in the business environment found in the smaller cities/regions of Quebec in order to understand more fully what is happening in the larger society.(1) Six separate research studies on these cities/regions form the basis of this analysis (see Works Cited).(2) We looked at Trois-Rivieres, St.-Hyacinthe, Drummondville, Sherbrooke, the Beauce Valley, and the Hull-Gatineau region adjacent to Ottawa.(3)

A variety of changes have transformed the business community of the large cities and the smaller towns and region of Quebec. However, the traditional industries of agriculture, lumber, pulp and paper, and minerals have continued to be vital to the economy, albeit on a decreasing scale. High tech industries, including small and medium-sized firms as well as large multinational enterprises now producing both goods and services under the direction of French-speaking management teams, have become an important part of the business milieu. The psychological climate has moved from uncertainty and anxiety to one of greater self-confidence reinforced by successful accomplishments.

As an example, the changes that occurred in the Lac St.- Jean region have been profound. Prior to the sixties unless one could speak and understand English on the job in communities such as Alma and Chicoutimi, which were 99% francophone, one could not work in the local aluminum and paper plants. Since then the mainly English-speaking country club has changed to 100% French-speaking. Local management is francophone. The neighborhood Anglican church has now become a museum. The changes in the business world are substantial and they are more than cosmetic. The Quebec economic environment must be understood from a historic, linguistic, cultural, and political base if one is to fully comprehend the last forty years of the business sector.

This overview, based on research in six Quebec cities/regions, is necessarily limited in scope. Quebec City is not included, but with its government center and its research resources, it possesses a number of similarities to these communities. Montreal is also similar in many ways but due to its large size and its central role in the provincial economy, it has a number of complex economic/business components not dealt with here.

A major aspect of change in business environments is that the shifts in production, communication, and transportation with modern infrastructure have enabled the smaller cities to function in many ways much like the larger urban center of Montreal. There are now particular advantages and opportunities in these peripheral areas for manufacturing. We are witnessing the dispersal of economic activities that were once limited to large urban centers such as Montreal and Quebec City (Kresl and Proulx).(4) As mentioned, the six communities researched for this study include Drummondville, St.-Hyacinthe, Sherbrooke, and Trois-Rivieres, which are located about two hours driving time from Montreal, plus the Beauce Valley, located directly south of Quebec City, and the Hull-Gatineau region across the Ottawa River from the capital of Canada.

The cities in this region of the Outaouais, particularly Hull and Gatineau, have seen substantial economic growth resulting from government service contracts, more federal institutional construction, computer and telecommunication firms, and increased tourism, resulting in hotel and restaurant expansion. The region has attracted people from all parts of Quebec who have a higher educational level, tend to be younger, and are more mobile. It is not as autonomous as the other cities/regions since it is more dependent on the economy of Ottawa. It has a new, rapidly changing economy with new housing construction, including many high-rise apartments visible everywhere.

The capital region is one of the three fastest growing urban areas of Canada, with a population now topping one million (the fourth largest urban region in Canada).(6) Up until the early nineties the Quebec portion of this region was an old resource-based economy that did not draw many visitors. The growth of the federal government across the river has had a clear impact on the Quebec side. Growth in the telecommunications, research, and computer fields as well as new government facilities has set in motion a new economy that will more than complement the old economy of paper, pulp, lumber, and farm products (Garfield).(7) Tourism has dramatically increased, with Hull-Gatineau drawing one million of the five million tourists to the capital district.

Per capita income for the towns studied show the capital region of Quebec first, while the older manufacturing town of Trois-Rivieres ranked fifth because of downsizing and numerous plant closings.

This growing region is now benefiting from its close proximity to Ottawa. The federal government has funded a number of institutions in Hull, including a major museum, the Canadian Museum of Civilization. Government jobs have increased while manufacturing jobs have declined. Gatineau is now the fifth largest city in Quebec with a population of 103,000. It has averaged a 9% growth from 1991 to 1997 (Ville de Gatineau 6).

In terms of language, this region is different from the other communities, which are over 90% French-speaking. There is a considerable amount of bilingualism among the population of Hull-Gatineau. There are many Anglo-Canadians living on the Quebec side of the Ottawa River and working in downtown Ottawa. Estimates put bilingualism in the workforce at over 60%, far greater than in any of the other cities.

A major change resulting directly from the Quiet Revolution was the expansion of higher educational opportunities. The expansion of university education in areas such as science, engineering, and business has given young Quebecois the expertise to take advantage of the higher skilled jobs and new businesses locating in the capital region.

This city of 40,000 represents a very successful transitional economy, one that has moved from a traditional agricultural base to one of food processing, food research, higher education, and manufacturing (paper, printing, textiles, machinery, furniture, electrical products). The US business presence is minimal, with only six US firms out of 321 having been identified in the city and its suburbs. Francophone management is at all top levels of firms in this region. This fact represents the impact of Bill 101 and is the case everywhere with the exception of Montreal and the Hull-Gatineau area.

Agriculture in the surrounding region has always been the core of this economy, but the changes in more high value-added labor represent the new economy that includes research by government agencies such as the Canada Food Research Corporation and the University of Montreal Veterinary medical facility. Industrial growth is promoted by a regional industrial promotional agency. These commissions were, in all the regions studied, highly professional and motivated, but focused mainly on indigenous provincial firms, with the Hull-Gatineau area being the exception. Government policies are reflected in infrastructure improvements such as the Trans-Canadian highway that passes the city.

The conference center that can be viewed from the highway is the third largest conference center in Quebec and in 1996 it was chosen "l'hotel du 4e Carrefour des bio-technologies du Quebec et du premier Congres International des technologies specialisees en agro-alimentaire et bio-technologies."(8) The business community is almost totally francophone and has a work, force that is composed of high value-added skills. Provincial programs, federal programs, university education programs, and the adjacent highway have all helped this city in the transition from the old economy to one of greater diversity and sophistication.

This town and its surrounding region have a population of 80,000. Located approximately sixty miles east from Montreal, Drummondville reflects the growing feeling of self-confidence among francophone entrepreneurs that they can be successful in business. It is further east than St.-Hyacinthe and located on the same Tram-Canadian highway, Route 20.(9) The economy reflects the drive to maximize exports to all parts of North America. The town has a direct connection to important US highways. Taking advantage of this access, the town has attracted over 430 manufacturing firms employing over 12,000 employees. Only thirty of these firms are foreign-owned. Businesses include over forty trucking firms, food and drink, wood products, rubber, chemicals, furniture, plastics, paper, and recreational products such as snowmobiles and hockey sticks. Today it is a much varied economy whereas thirty years ago it was dominated by textiles. Over 40% of what Drummondville produces is exported, with exports to the US being a major priority. The North American Free Trade Agreement has accelerated this opening up to rest of North America.

Does Drummondville represent the new economic model for Quebec? Indeed it does, with its diversification, its more skilled workforce, its ability to attract new industries that are focused on exporting.

More than any of the cities studied here, the Beauce region, stretching over sixty miles from the south shore of the St. Lawrence directly across from Quebec City to the Maine border, reflects the "can-do" business philosophy and the new self-confidence of the francophone population. The success of manufacturing and commercial development in the region predates the Quiet Revolution, but the period since the sixties has certainly seen the rapid spread of successful enterprises located throughout the Chaudiere River valley region. This is a region where people are far less likely to turn to the state for problem solving and where private enterprise permeates the milieu.

The region's economic strategy is to produce quality products, stress constant innovation,(10) and promote exports to the global economy. NAFTA is not cursed but is indeed embraced. There is a self-confidence that is based on Beaucerons returning from New England with different attitudes and strong individualism and initiative. At the same time, the Beauce has a strong sense of its distinct regional culture that resists the erosion of community values by globalization.

The Beauce, like Drummondville, has been cited as a region that offers a distinctive economic model for the new Quebec. Its unemployment rate has been among the lowest in the province. Two towns are of particular significance in the region: Saint-George and Sainte-Marie (1996 population 20,057 and 10,966). Saint-George has 280 manufacturers including sixteen new firms added in 1996. The entire Beauce has twenty-one industrial parks.

Sainte-Marie, the center for the northern region, has 110 firms whose products include bathroom fixtures, furniture, concrete products, radio speakers, prefab houses, metal buildings, steel bridges, windows, and bakery products as well as lumber. Exports are mainly to Ontario and the US while other global destinations include South America, Russia, China, Mexico, Korea, Germany, France, the U.K., and Italy.(11)

Trois-Rivieres is one of the oldest cities in Quebec and has a long history of manufacturing. It is the birthplace of the iron and steel industry and the pulp and paper industry in North America (Joyal). Population for the city core and nearby towns is about 136,000. The economy today is based more on large corporations producing aluminum, paper, and textiles. Because it has a less diverse economy and has suffered job losses from new automated machinery and plant closings, it is in the process of revitalizing its economy. Trois-Rivieres has an attractive downtown with restaurants that serve the increasing tourist population (more European than American). Economic adaptation is noted in the increasing tourist influx and the revitalization of port facilities on the St. Lawrence. This is a city populated by a more traditional francophone population than Montreal, one that is more Catholic and with a smaller immigrant population.

Trois-Rivieres has a certain charm and a workforce that prefers to stay rather than leave. It also has a widely shared culture and tradition with characteristics similar to the Beauce region but lacking the diversification of small and medium size firms found there. Unlike Hull and Gatineau, it lacks the capital magnet to draw tourists to the region.

Sherbrooke is located about thirty miles from the Vermont border with highway links to the US as well as to Montreal and Ontario. It is the third most populated city studied: 154,865 for greater Sherbrooke and 76,429 for the urban center in 2002, according to Quebec's Institut de la statisque. It is an older manufacturing center that is going through a restructuring of the business sector. Older manufacturing plants are being replaced by industrial parks, high-tech research, and tourism. The University of Sherbrooke draws thousands of students and has a strong R & D base in pharmacology. A sampling of products for export include car parts, boats, food products, bakery equipment, transmissions, and plastic products. There are over 500 industries in the region.

Even though Sherbrooke is close to the border and only five miles from the major anglophone university of the eastern townships, Bishop's University, the business leaders and management staffs are almost all French-speaking. We were surprised at the almost invisible presence of Americans in a region so close to the border. The political and economic strata are entirely francophone. There are only seven US-owned plants out of the 500 plus business operations. Forty years ago there was a much more visible presence of Americans and Anglo-Canadians in the business community.

The semi-skilled plant worker has been replaced to a great extent by a more educated worker with higher value-added skills, due in part to the expansion of a major university. Students graduate with the higher value-added skills necessary to operate in a global economy. In this case, global dependence has actually strengthened regional autonomy and provided economic substance to a region that is overwhelmingly francophone.

Since this process of change began, FDI by the US has dropped as a percentage of the total domestic assets. At the beginning of the Quiet Revolution, direct investment comprised about 35% of total assets in Canada and now has decreased to 25%, in spite of the fact that the nineties has seen a significant increase of FDI. The overall total is still around $240 billionn CDN. The Canadian intelligentsia, scholars and journalists in particular, complained during the debate over the free trade agreement with the US in 1989 that the agreement would lead to a massive exiting of US firms from Canada. Clearly that has not happened. Also the fears of excessive US FDI expressed in Ontario are not heard in Quebec. Increases in American acquisitions in 1999 were viewed by one journalist as a "sellout of Canada," and Canadian firms were seen as being trampled by the rampaging American rhinoceros (Maclean's 51). In conducting a number of interviews in the six communities, we have yet to find such fears in the Quebec business community. Maclean's magazine, in a separate article, noted that the "Quebecois are least likely to say that Canadians are losing control of businesses operating in Canada" (Maclean's 42).

Our findings are that in Quebec, in spite of continued political uncertainty and language laws, US firms are continuing to set up new and expand existing operations, but at a slower rate than elsewhere in Canada. We estimate that 12% of total FDI going into Canada goes into Quebec. More importantly, 80% of that total comes from expansion by existing businesses, while only 20% represent new businesses. US firms in our studies show they are viable in each economic sector, but they are also decreasing as a percentage of total investment. However, major new investments such as those by Pratt & Whitney (engines), IBM, and US pharmaceuticals tend to be going into the Montreal area and into the Hull-Gatineau area.

We searched in vain for a highly visible US business presence in the smaller cities with the exception of Hull-Gatineau. Almost all US executives interviewed were in Montreal. Almost all firms in the six regions were totally francophone in the CEO ranks and upper management. Since the US business presence is limited, US firms are welcomed in Quebec and they are not a cause for concern at all.

However, the priorities are focused on the small and medium size regional businesses that can add to the export of goods and services. One official noted that US firms were complementing the indigenous business sector with investments that represented "competitive high value-added industries in leading sectors, notably aerospace, pharmaceutical products and information technologies."(12) While US firms make up 48% of new foreign investment compared to the overall Canadian 72%, there are more European firms in the foreign direct investment mix of Quebec.

Foreign Direct Investment has always been an important part of the economy. However trends in the six communities show that local entrepreneurs have increased in all communities particularly in Drummondville, the Beauce, and the Hull-Gatineau area. The Beauce region has some US fast food franchises and some service firms in finance and accounting, but no significant US presence.

Drummondville has only twelve US firms among the 420 plus firms in the region. They involve food processing, chemicals, textiles, and insulation. In all communities we did not locate one US CEO. St.-Hyacinthe had five US firms among the 321 in the region,(13) including Kimberly Clark Canada with over 500 employees, Sport Maska with over 350 workers, and St. Jude Medical Center, a small medical research lab. Sherbrooke has seen a loss of US firms including one of the oldest firm in Canada, Ingersoll-Rand, which closed its doors as a major manufacturing plant in the mid-nineties. There are seven American firms out of a total number of over 500.

While none of the six or more industrial commissions in these regions placed the need to attract US foreign direct investment on a high priority list, there were no objections to increasing the US presence. There was no concern or anxiety about the US business presence. US firms are welcome but the primary goals were to increase and to expand the Quebec based small and medium size businesses.

In general the trend of US FDI in Quebec is for expansion in the high tech sectors, such as aerospace in Montreal and pharmaceuticals in Montreal, Laval and Sherbrooke. At the same time, older manufacturing sectors in the smaller dries appear to be decreasing. Specific examples of a smaller presence are machinery in Sherbrooke and aluminum and paper in Trois-Rivieres. It may be that there is some loss to the smaller towns that is not entirely being taken care of by local entrepreneurs, at least in the Sherbrooke and Trois-Rivieres areas.

A great deal has changed since the early sixties. The dominance of large US and Anglo-Canadian firms has been significantly reduced. The top structure of upper management in almost all business firms outside of Montreal is now largely French-speaking. The exclusive neighborhoods of Anglophones with Anglican churches has given way to a new French-speaking elite. Bill 101 has had a profound effect on the language of work and almost the entire managerial class uses French in its internal operations. Globalization, that is, increasing ties to the outside world for business purposes, has strengthened rather than weakened the use of French, since all businesses, domestic and foreign, have hired and promoted a French managerial cadre throughout Quebec. French is practically mandatory outside of Montreal.

Because the major policies of government are focused on Quebecois-owned small and medium size businesses, the province has not attracted American firms to the same degree as Ontario. In fact, Ontario has a 5:1 ratio over Quebec in attracting foreign firms. The centerpiece of Quebec public policies is to support successful exporting by provincial firms. Quebec did, however, attract 14% of incoming foreign direct investment during the 1990s. Foreign investment now totals about $32 billion while exports from the province total over $50 billion each year. It is important to note that only 20% of new FDI in the province is going into new operations while the other 80% is for expanding in-place operations.

Agriculture continues to decline. It is no longer the centerpiece of French language and cultural survival, as it was during the nineteenth and early twentieth century. This sector employs fewer people each year comprising only 2.5% of the workforce.(14) There has been a major shift to small and medium-size enterprises and corporations that have shown a high degree of flexibility in product adaptation and innovation.

In contrast to Ontario, Quebec has always had a strong favorable view of the free trade policies unfolding from the North American Free Trade Agreement. These policies of openness reflect the self-confidence of the business and labor communities, and the belief that globalization, which has led to increasing exports, will produce a more viable and self-sufficient economy.

The provincial government continues to develop a variety of policies to stimulate the economy. A few examples are:

1) Improving the infrastructure of roads, ports, power, water supply, waste disposal, and communications.

2) Expanding the educational systems at all levels.

3) Tax incentives to attract computer and pharmaceutical firms.

4) The development of university research centers.

5) Innovative planning and development of industrial/research parks.

The state, thus, continues its important role in supporting economic growth, but today its role is different than in the past. During the 1920s, the policies developed by Premier Louis-Alexandre Taschereau placed a high priority on attracting foreign firms. During the early sixties the focus was on expanding the role of the state and on doing so to provide employment for the new young university graduates produced by the new state-funded universities. In doing this, government had become the prime mover of the economy. Today the focus is on "fending for ourselves" (Johnson). The state therefore has indeed replaced the Church as the institution to guarantee expansion of the economy and educational opportunities, and to ensure cultural and linguistic survival.

Values and goals have indeed changed since 1960. Spiritual and community values have given way to the pursuit of wealth and the good life. Old Quebec meant Church, family, and residential stability. New Quebec means higher education, more options, well-paid jobs or businesses, new and bigger homes, cars, vacations in Florida. New Quebec is more democratic (Everett). The old value system was based on the glorification of rural life, the farm, the Church, the local school. It was a way of life based not in cities like Montreal and Quebec but in the small agricultural communities that provided comfort and continuity of values and tradition.

The new Quebec, driven by the Quiet Revolution, has the state as its center and driving force. Under the leadership of the governing parties, whether Parti Quebecois or Liberal, one of the roles of government has been to foster a more able entrepreneurial business class. Governments of both parties have produced a political system that defends French language rights and is more democratic. They have created a more materialistic society with a better-educated workforce and more traveled citizens knowledgeable about the global marketplace and open to the contemporary mores of US society. The last forty years have seen these characteristics replacing the traditional values of Church, family, small farming communities, and a nineteenth-century culture of art and music.

The provincial government and institutions of higher learning have revolutionized the skills of Quebec university graduates. The provincial government under both the Parti Quebecois and the Liberal Party has been very important "as a facilitator of private sector activity" (Kresl and Proulx 310). These government support networks are in ample evidence in all these areas. Management skills, scientific skills, and engineering skills are now found in all areas. The new Quebec is a higher-value added, computerized, telecommunications and product oriented society. In view of the high variety of quality products now being exported to Ontario and to the US market, it is simply not accurate to assert that manufacturing is less significant. The rest of Canada as a major market for Quebec goods and services is still very important. This production has given Quebeckers a higher standard of living and a consistent self-confidence that was in short supply before 1960. It is true that the service sector will continue to grow, but in the communities in this study, it will not replace the importance of manufacturing. Agriculture, mining, and forestry have lost some of their dominance to new sectors in computers, machinery, transportation, and high energy use industries.

What has changed? Everything. The most important social impact has been rapid modernization of ideas resulting, to a great extent, from globalization: the limiting of the economy not to just one region or one nation, but to a wider region that embraces not only North America but the global world market. Doing business with all parts of the globe has become a necessity for any industrial economy, and Quebec is no exception. Quebeckers have indeed become masters in their own house but are also becoming tied to the world not only in business but in social values (e.g., materialism, consumerism) and in the political realm. They have in this period gained greater control over their local milieu while at the same time they have become more linked to and dependent on others.

It is apparent that the market place has enabled Francophones to control their economy in many ways, since it was Bill 101 that made French the language of work, thus ensuring cultural and linguistic survival. It has proved far more significant in achieving the goals of culture and language than could be expected in view of the difficulty presented by a small population of five million in a North American population of 300 million English speakers.


Table 1
Per Capita Income

City/Region                 Per Capita Income

Outaouais (Hull-Gatineau)        $24,909
St.-Hyacinthe                     24,712
Sherbrooke                        21,132
The Beauce Region                 21,000
Trois-Rivieres                    20,789
Drummondville                     20,068

Source: Institut de la statistique du Quebec: Quebec Handy

Numbers, 1999 ed., 34-36.

Notes

The author would like to acknowledge the participation of Robert Whelan, College of Urban and Public Affairs, University of New Orleans who participated in a number of personal interviews and provided help in the design of these studies of smaller economic systems.

(1) The analysis methodology is based in part on the work of Viditch and Bensmen (1960). In this work on a smaller upstate New York town the authors studied the process of social change as the population changed from farmers and merchants towards a more professional/bureaucracy base with a changing economy.

(2) All six papers have been presented at conferences held by the Association for Canadian Studies in the United States, the SUNY Plattsburgh Symposium, and the American Council for Quebec Studies.

(3) Professor Robert Whelan of the University of New Orleans joined me on these numerous interviews and he also conducted several field trips to Chicoutimi and to the Lac Saint-Jean region. I also wish to express my appreciation for the insights and critical perspectives of Professors Martin Lubin and Donald Cuccioletta of SUNY Plattsburgh, who were the organizers of this symposium. Their insightful discourse created the critical mass for this ambitious project.

(4) Peter Karl Kresl and Pierre-Paul Proulx, "Montreal's Place in the North American Economy," American Review of Canadian Studies 30.3 (2000): 284.

(5) This region of Quebec is called "The Outaouais" and while we deal with the region as a whole, a significant part of our focus has been on the cities of Hull and Gatineau.

(6) The Conference Board of Canada, press announcement, Internet, 3 August 2000. <http://www.conferenceboard.ca/weblinx>.

(7) Chad Garfield, Histoire de l'Outaouais (Montreal: Institut Quebecois de recherche sur la culture, 1994).

(8) Corporation de developpement economique industriel de la region de Saint-Haycinthe, Inc. "Rapport d'Activites," 9.

(9) Economic Development Commission of Drummondville, "Drummondville, Un monde en action," 5.

(10) In his Masters thesis, Claude Bolduc (1993) presents a number of explanations as to why the Beauce has been so creative in increasing small and medium-size businesses.

(11) Beauce Industrial Commission, "A 1995 Report on Company Exports from the Beauce Region."

(12) Ministry of International Affairs, summer 2000.

(13) Letter to author, dated 23 August 1995, from Mario DeTilley, Director Manager, Corporation de developpement economique et industriel de la region de Saint-Hyacinthe.

(14) Institut de la statistique du Quebec, Quebec Handy Numbers (Quebec, 1999) 20.

Sources Cited

Government Reports:

Beauce Industrial Commission. "A 1995 Report on Company Exports from the Beauce Region." 1995.

CEDIC, Corporation economique de developpement industriel et commercial de Trois-Rivieres. The Greater Trois-Rivieres. 1995.

Corporation de developpement economique industriel de la region de Saint-Hyacinthe, Inc. "Rapport d'Activites." 1994.

Corporation economique de developpement industriel et commercial de Trois-Rivieres Metropolitain. Take Advantage. 1997.

Economic Development Commission. "The Beauce." 1996.

Economic Development Commission of Drummondville. Drummondville, Un monde en action. 1998.

Economic Development of Greater St.-Hyacinthe. A City, A region. 1997.

Industrial Division, Economic Development Commission of Sherbrooke. Economic Fact Sheet. August 1996.

Institut de la Statistique du Quebec. Quebec Handy Numbers. 1999.

Ville de Gatineau, "Plan strategique de developpement economique de Gatineau." 1998.

Seminar Presentations:

Everett, Jane. SUNY Plattsburgh Summer Seminar. Montreal. August 2000.

Johnson, Daniel (former Premier of Quebec). SUNY Plattsburgh Summer Seminar. Montreal. August 2000.

Business Resource Organization:

The Conference Board of Canada, Montreal.

Books and articles:

Bolduc, Claude. "Les Modeles beaucerons d'entrepreneurship: un facteur explicatif de developpement regional." Unpublished Masters Thesis, U du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 1993.

Gaffield, Chad. Histoire de l'Outaouais. Quebec: Institut Quebecois de recherche sur la culture, 1994.

Kresl, Peter Karl and Pierre-Paul Proulx. "Montreal's Place in the North American Economy." American Review of Canadian Studies 30.3 (2000): 283-314.

Lachapelle, Guy. Quebec Under Free Trade. Quebec: U Quebec P, 1996.

Maclean's. "The Year of Living Dangerously." 20 December 1992.

Vidich, Arthur J. and Joseph Bensman. Small Town in Mass Society: Class, Power, and Religion in a Rural Community. Princeton: Princeton U P, 1969.

Wolfe, David A. and Adam Holbrook, eds. Knowledge, Clusters and Regional Innovation, Economic Development in Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen's U P, 2002.

Interviews and Letters:

Barnabe, Andre. Drummondville Industrial Corporation. Personal interview. August 1996.

Caritnan, Francois. Corporation of Trade Promotion, Trois-Rivieres, Personal interview. August 1997.

De Tilly, Mario. Saint-Hyacinthe Industrial Commission. Personal interview. August 1995.

Gingras, Benoit. Saint-Hyacinthe Industrial Commission. Personal interview. August 2002.

Joyal, Andre. Co-director of the Research Group in Economy and Management of Small Businesses. U du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres. Personal interview. August 1997.

Statistics Canada. Letter to author. July 2000.

Source Citation

Source Citation   

Gale Document Number: GALE|A30592534