Timeline

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Editors: Sara Pendergast , Christine Slovey , and Tom Pendergast
Date: 2002
World War I Reference Library
From: World War I Reference Library(Vol. 1: Almanac. )
Publisher: Gale
Document Type: Article
Pages: 7
Content Level: (Level 3)

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Page xi

Timeline


Police apprehending Gavrilo Princip after he assassinated Crown Prince Franz Ferdinand. Reproduced by permission of the Corbis Corporation (Bellevue).

Police apprehending Gavrilo Princip after he assassinated Crown Prince Franz Ferdinand. Reproduced by permission of the Corbis Corporation (Bellevue).

1871
German states unify after defeating France in 1870; the Franco-Prussian war is the source of some of the hatred between France and Germany
1872
The emperors of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia pledge their friendship to each other in the League of the Three Emperors
1879
Germany and Austria-Hungary create the Dual Alliance
1904
Britain and France sign the Entente Cordiale, an agreement settling long-running arguments over colonial territories and promising future cooperation in military affairs
1908
Austria-Hungary annexes the provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina, angering Serbia, which wanted to dominate the Balkan region
1914
June 28 Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo
July 23 Austria-Hungary issues an ultimatum concerning the investigation of the assasination to Serbia; Serbia refused to comply with its terms

Page xii  |  Top of Article
German machine gun corps protecting the flank of advancing troops. Reproduced by permission of Archive Photos, Inc.

German machine gun corps protecting the flank of advancing troops. Reproduced by permission of Archive Photos, Inc.

July 28 Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
August 1 Germany declares war on Russia
August 3 Germany declares war on France; German troops enter Belgium
August 4 Great Britain declares war on Germany; Germany declares war on Belgium; United States declares its neutrality
August 6 Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia; Serbia declares war on Germany
August 10 Frances declares war on Austro-Hungary
Mid-August Russian forces defeat Germans in skirmishes in eastern Prussia
August 14 French and German troops clash in the Alsace-Lorraine region
August 16 Belgium surrenders its fortress at Liège
August 23 Battle of Mons pits Germans against French and British
August 25-31 Russia is defeated by Germany in the Battle of Tannenberg
August 26 French and British troops take the German colony of Togo
August 28 Naval Battle of Heligoland Bight in the North Sea
September 5 A German submarine scores its first kill, sinking the British cruiser Pathfinder
September 6-10 In the Battle of the Marne, the German advance into France is halted and Allied and German forces dig in to the trenches from which they will fight for the remainder of the war
October 29 The Ottoman Empire (Turkey) joins the Central Powers (Germany and Austria-Hungary)
October 29-November 22 First Battle of Ypres
November 1 Naval Battle of Colonel
November 3 Great Britain declares the North Sea a war zone and places mines in the water to destroy German shipping
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November 6 France and Great Britain declare war on Turkey
November 7 Germans surrender the Chinese port of Tsingtao
December 20-March 10, 1915 First Battle of Champagne


General Paul von Hindenburg, Kaiser Wilhelm II, and General Erich Ludendorff. Reproduced by permission of the Corbis Corporation (Bellevue).

General Paul von Hindenburg, Kaiser Wilhelm II, and General Erich Ludendorff. Reproduced by permission of the Corbis Corporation (Bellevue).

1915
January-February Winter Battle of Masuria between Russia, Germany, and Austria-Hungary
January 24 Naval Battle of Dogger Bank
February 4 Germany declares a "war zone" around the British Isles, hoping to stop shipping to the island nation
February 9 British and French begin assault on Gallipoli in Turkey
March 11 Great Britain announces a blockade of German ports, hoping to starve the Germans of needed food and supplies
April 22 Poison gas is used for the first time in the Second Battle of Ypres
April 24 Turks begin massacre of Armenians
April 26 France, Russia, Italy, and Great Britain conclude the secret treaty of London
May 2 Germans begin an assault that drives Russia out of Poland
May 7 A German submarine sinks the British passenger liner Lusitania, killing 1,198 people, including 128 Americans. U.S. President Woodrow Wilson continues to proclaim American neutrality
May 23 Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary, honoring a secret treaty it had signed with the Allies (France, Great Britain, Russia, Belgium, and later the United States)
June 6 German naval commanders order German submarines to stop sinking passenger ships
June 9 U.S. president Wilson sends Germany a strong protest against Germany's use of submarine warfare
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June 23 Italy begins fighting near Isonzo in the first of what will be twelve battles near this small town
July 9 German forces surrender colony of German Southwest Africa
September 1 Germany ends unrestricted submarine warfare, hoping to keep the United States from siding with the Allies
September 6 Bulgaria joins the Central Powers, attacks Serbia
September 25 Battle of Loos
October 6 Serbia is invaded by the Central Powers
October 15 Great Britain declares war on Bulgaria
October 23 Allied troops are evacuated from Gallipoli after being defeated by Turkish forces
December 3 Joseph "Papa" Joffre is named commander-in-chief of French forces
December 8 Naval Battle of the Falkland Islands
December 17 Douglas Haig is named commander in chief of British forces, replacing John Haig


French soldier falling after being shot near Verdun. Reproduced by permission of the Corbis Corporation (Bellevue).

French soldier falling after being shot near Verdun. Reproduced by permission of the Corbis Corporation (Bellevue).

1916
January 11 Russia begins attack on Turkish forces in the Caucasus region
February 21-December 18 The Battle of Verdun, in which German forces attack French fortresses near the town of Verdun; this is the longest single battle of the war
February 28 German forces in Cameroon surrender
May 31 Naval Battle of Jutland
April 24 The Easter Rebellion for Irish independence is crushed by British troops
June 4-September 30 Brusilov offensive, in which Russians attack Austro-Hungarian and German forces
June 1-November 13 Battle of the Somme between Germans and Allies; the British use tanks for the first time in this battle on September 15
August 27 Romania enters the war on the side of the Allies
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August 27 Italy declares war on Germany
August 29 Generals Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff take charge of the German military
September-November British forces march up Tigres-Euphrates valley, hoping to take Baghdad, but are defeated at Kut on April 29, 1917
November 7 Woodrow Wilson is reelected as President of the United States; he campaigns on the pledge to keep the United States out of war
December 7 David Lloyd George becomes British Prime Minister


Child in a refugee camp in Salonika, Greece. Reproduced by permission of Archive Photos, Inc.

Child in a refugee camp in Salonika, Greece. Reproduced by permission of Archive Photos, Inc.

1917
February 1 Germans renew unrestricted submarine warfare
February 3 The United States breaks off diplomatic relations with Germany
February 23 Germans begin their withdrawal to the Hindenburg Line, a defensive position to the rear of the present front
March 12 First revolution in Russia; Czar Nicholas II abdicates on March 15
April 6 The United States declares war on Germany
April 16 Battle of the Aisne (also known as the Neville offensive) signals new French strategy, but the offensive fails within two weeks
April 16 220,000 German workers stage peaceful strike protesting the war
June 25 First American troops arrive in France
July 1-November 10 Third Battle of Ypres, or Pass-chendaele
October 24 Italians defeated by combined German and Austrian forces at Caporetto
November 4 British forces arrive in Italy
November 7 Bolshevik forces seize power in Russia
November 20 British use tanks effectively in Battle of Cambrai
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December 2 Fighting ends on Eastern Front
December 7 United States declares war on Austria-Hungary
December 15 Germans and Russians sign armistice; peace talks start a week later at Brest-Litovsk


British tank Winston's Folly going over a trench. Reproduced by permission of the Corbis Corporation (Bellevue).

British tank Winston's Folly going over a trench. Reproduced by permission of the Corbis Corporation (Bellevue).

1918
January 8 U.S. President Woodrow Wilson delivers "Fourteen Points" address before Congress
April 28 Gavrilo Princip dies in the Theresienstadt prison in Austria
March 3 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed between Germany and Russia
March 21 Germans break through Allied front near the Somme, beginning their "Spring Offensives"
March 23-April 9 Germans shell the city of Paris
May 7 Treaty of Bucharest ends fighting between Romania and Central Powers
July 15-18 Second Battle of the Marne, in which German forces begin to retreat
July 18-August 15 Allied Aisne-Marne offensive
August 8 Known as the "blackest day" for the German army, which was defeated in several key fights on this day and fell into a headlong retreat
September 12-16 American offensive at Saint-Mihiel
September 14 Allies begin assault on Germans and Austro-Hungarians along the Salonika Front in Greece
September 25-27 Allies launch the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, the last major attack of the war and one in which American troops see significant action
September 29 Bulgaria becomes the first of the Central Powers to surrender
October 20 Germany abandons submarine warfare
October 29 German sailors mutiny against their commanders
October 20 Turkey makes peace with the Allies
November 3 Austria-Hungary makes peace with the Allies
Page xvii  |  Top of Article
November 9 Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates his throne; elected German officials declare the existence of the German Republic
November 11 Germany signs armistice with the Allies
November 21 German navy surrenders to the British


Happy Parisians during a celebration of the end of World War I. Reproduced by permission of Archive Photos, Inc.

Happy Parisians during a celebration of the end of World War I. Reproduced by permission of Archive Photos, Inc.

1919
January 4 Peace conference begins in Paris
June 28 Treaty of Versailles signed
November 19 U.S. Senate refuses to ratify Treaty of Versailles
1921
July 2 U.S. President Warren Harding signs a congressional joint resolution officially ending the war with Germany

Source Citation

Source Citation   (MLA 8th Edition)
"Timeline." World War I Reference Library, edited by Sara Pendergast, et al., vol. 1: Almanac, UXL, 2002, pp. xi-xvii. Gale Ebooks, https%3A%2F%2Flink.gale.com%2Fapps%2Fdoc%2FCX3411700007%2FGVRL%3Fu%3Dmlin_m_newtnsh%26sid%3DGVRL%26xid%3D51dd3f38. Accessed 19 Nov. 2019.

Gale Document Number: GALE|CX3411700007