Fossil Fuels

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Editors: K. Lee Lerner , Brenda Wilmoth Lerner , and Kathleen J. Edgar
Date: 2012
Alternative Energy
From: Alternative Energy(Vol. 1. 2nd ed.)
Publisher: Gale, a Cengage Company
Document Type: Topic overview
Pages: 61
Content Level: (Level 4)
Lexile Measure: 1210L

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1: Fossil Fuels

Introduction: What Are Fossil Fuels?

According to the U.S. Department of Energy, in 2009 more than 85 percent of the energy consumed in the United States came from fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas, and petroleum, often called oil. Fossil fuels provide power for a variety of tasks, including running car engines, heating steam to spin large electrical generators that supply light and heat, and powering factories.

It is important to understand the advantages and drawbacks of fossil fuels in order to make informed decisions about their present and future potential for powering modern society, specifically in comparison to alternative sources of energy, including so-called “renewable energy.”

Fossil fuels are a popular source of energy because they are considered convenient, effective, plentiful, and relatively inexpensive. However, most of the world's accessible fossil fuel reserves are possessed by a few nations, a fact that often causes conflicts. Nevertheless, as of the early 2010s, there are no practical and available alternatives to fossil fuels for most energy needs, so they continue to be heavily used.

Types of fossil fuels Fossil fuels are substances that formed underground millions of years ago from prehistoric plants and other living things that were buried under layers of sediment. This included dirt, sand, and dead plants.

To turn into fossil fuels, this organic matter (matter that comes from a life form and is composed mainly of the element carbon) was crushed, heated, and deprived of oxygen. Under the right conditions and over millions of years, this treatment turns dead plants into fossil fuels.

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The three main types of fossil fuels correspond to the three states of matter that are most familiar—solid, liquid, and gas:

  • Coal is a solid.
  • Petroleum is a liquid.
  • Natural gas is a gas.

Several common fossil fuels are derived from refined petroleum or natural gas. These fuels include gases such as propane, butane, and methanol.

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WORDS TO KNOW

Alkane: A kind of hydrocarbon in which the molecules have the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms and no double bonds.

Barrel: A common unit of measurement of crude oil, equivalent to 42 U.S. gallons; barrels of oil per day, or BOPD, is a standard measurement of how much crude oil a well produces.

Catalyst: A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction or allows it to occur under different conditions than otherwise possible.

Clean Air Act: A U.S. law intended to reduce and control air pollution by setting emissions limits for utilities.

Climate change: Changes over time in the measurable properties of the Earth's climate, such as changes in average global temperatures (getting hotter or colder), changes in the amount of precipitation (rain and snow), and changes in other features of the climate.

Emissions: The by-products of fossil fuel burning that are released into the air.

Global warming: A phenomenon in which the average temperature of Earth rises, melting icecaps, raising sea levels, and causing other environmental problems.

Greenhouse effect: A phenomenon in which gases in Earth's atmosphere prevent some of the sun's radiation from being reflected back into space, raising the surface temperature of Earth.

Octane rating: The measure of how much a fuel combined with air can be compressed before it spontaneously ignites.

Ozone: A molecule consisting of three atoms of oxygen, naturally produced in Earth's atmosphere; ozone is toxic to humans.

Seismology: The study of movement within the earth, such as earthquakes and the eruption of volcanoes.

Natural gas versus gasoline Natural gas is not sold at gas stations. The fuel used in cars is typically either gasoline or diesel fuel, both of which are derived from liquid petroleum. Although most people call gasoline “gas,” this fuel is not the same thing as natural gas. The word gas more properly refers to natural gas, not gasoline. Also, the word oil refers to petroleum. Diesel fuel made from petroleum is sometimes called petrodiesel in order to distinguish it from the non-fossil fuel version of diesel called biodiesel, which is derived from renewable materials such as soybeans.

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Whether a fossil fuel formed as a solid, liquid, or gas depends on the location, the composition of the materials, the length of time the matter was compressed, how hot it became, and how long it was buried. Coal formed from accumulated layers of plants that died in swamps and were buried for millions of years. Petroleum and natural gas formed from microscopic plants and bacteria in the oceans. Both petroleum and natural gas formed in places that could contain them: pockets, or reservoirs (reh-zuh-VWARS), in the undersea rock.

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Dinosaurs in the Gas Tank?

When many people think about fossil fuels, they immediately think about dinosaurs. However, it is unlikely that fossil fuels are made of dinosaurs.

Most fossil fuels formed about 300 million years ago, and most of them are made mainly of plant matter. Dinosaurs did not appear until about 230 million years ago, so the first dinosaur was not born until the youngest petroleum had already formed.

Dinosaur fossils do, however, have something in common with fossil fuels: Both dinosaur bones and solid fossil fuels (like coal) are the hardened remains of animals and plants preserved in Earth's crust from an earlier age.

Dinosaur fossils formed when dinosaurs were buried in sand or dirt, and their skeletons were hardened by minerals that seeped in through tiny holes in the bone.


When people see fossilized dinosaur tracks in the Arizona desert, they may associate dinosaurs with fossil fuels. However, most fossil fuels formed millions of years before the dinosaurs appeared.

When people see fossilized dinosaur tracks in the Arizona desert, they may associate dinosaurs with fossil fuels. However, most fossil fuels formed millions of years before the dinosaurs appeared. © ANTON FOLTIN/SHUTTERSTOCK.COM.

Earth has a lot of fossil fuels. Analysts at the U.S. Energy Information Agency (EIA) estimated in 2010 that the United States alone possessed an estimated four trillion tons of coal, enough to meet present rates of energy use for hundreds of years. Petroleum and natural gas deposits are not nearly so extensive. Most scientists believe that if people continue to use oil and gas at the same rate they use these products in the

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early 2010s, all known petroleum and gas reserves will be depleted by the beginning of the 22nd century.

In 2009, the IEA stated that petroleum supplied about 35 percent of the energy needs of the United States. About 20 percent was covered by coal and a bit over 23 percent by natural gas. The IEA also projected in a 2010 report that the world will need almost 50 percent more energy in 2035 than it did in 2007.

There are other kinds of fossil fuels besides oil, coal, and natural gas, but generally speaking they are much more difficult to extract economically. These fossil fuels include:

  • Gas hydrates, which are deposits of methane and water that form crystals in ocean sediments. There is currently no practical technology for extracting methane from the crystals, so gas hydrates are not yet considered a part of world energy reserves.
  • Tar sands, which are patches of tar in sandstone. Petroleum sometimes gets embedded in sandstone, and the bacteria in the sandstone and the surrounding water make the petroleum turn into tar. Tar sands are difficult to recover and use.
  • Oil shale, which is a type of rock full of a waxy organic substance called kerogen (KEHR-uh-juhn). Kerogen formed from the same microscopic plants and bacteria that make up petroleum, but it never reached the pressure or temperature that would have turned it into oil. It is not currently practical to recover or use oil shale.

How fossil fuels work Fossil fuels generate energy by releasing heat when burned. This energy can serve a variety of purposes from heating homes to powering automobiles. The simplest devices that use fossil fuels burn them to directly use the heat released. For example, some homes are heated by furnaces that burn natural gas. The heat from the burning gas warms the house. Camping stoves often burn propane that is fed to the stove burners from an attached bottle. Coal stoves burn lumps of coal.

Most fossil fuel-powered operations, however, use the burning of the fossil fuel to power much more complex machines, such as internal combustion engines. In many cases, other fuels (that are non-fossil fuels) could supply the necessary heat. For example, locomotives could be powered by burning wood instead of burning coal, and power plants could be powered by running water (such as released by a hydroelectric dam) instead of coal.

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A miner holds several pieces of black coal in his hand.

A miner holds several pieces of black coal in his hand. © KILUKILU/SHUTTERSTOCK.COM.

The advantage of fossil fuels in these situations is that they not only produce large amounts of heat for their volume (that is, fossil fuels possess a relatively high energy density), but they are also widely available. Compare, for instance, the widespread availability of gasoline stations and natural gas pipelines supplying natural gas to homes and factories, to the rather limited number of locations that are available for placing hydroelectric power plants.

The internal combustion engine Automobiles use fossil fuels (typically gasoline or diesel) to power their internal combustion engines. An internal combustion engine burns a fuel to power moving parts within the engine, most often pistons, which in turn make the engine operate in order to rotate the car's wheels.

Internal combustion engines have been around since the 1860s. The four-stroke “Otto” engine was invented in 1867 by Nikolaus August Otto (1832–1891), a German engineer. Another German engineer, Rudolph Diesel (1858–1913), invented the diesel engine in 1892. The basic principles of internal combustion have not changed since then.

An engine typically contains several pistons constrained to move up and down within cylinders (most cars have between four and eight) that make the engine move. In order to capture effectively the energy locked within the fossil fuel (such as gasoline), the fuel must be properly combined with oxygen (a major component of air) to form a fuel/air mixture. This is

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Fossil fuels are used to power complex machines such as the internal combustion engine.

Fossil fuels are used to power complex machines such as the internal combustion engine. © HFNG/SHUTTERSTOCK.COM.

then compressed and ignited within the cylinder. After the fuel/air mixture is ignited, the piston is forced downward within the cylinder by the expanding hot combustion gases (the result of the burning fuel/air mixture). The piston converts some of the heat of combustion into mechanical energy that, in turn, makes the car move.

A description of a four-stroke cylinder cycle for a gasoline engine follows. A diesel engine has the same basic cycle except that a spark plug is not used to ignite the fuel/air mixture. The four-stroke cycle works like this:

  1. The intake valve opens to let air and fuel into the cylinder while the piston is moving downward. This is called the intake stroke.
  2. The piston begins traveling up. The intake valve closes and the piston compresses the air and fuel in the cylinder. This is called the compression stroke.
  3. As the piston nears the top of the cylinder, the spark plug creates a spark, which ignites the fuel/air mixture so that it explodes. The explosion pushes the piston down. The piston rotates the crankshaft to which it is connected. This is called the power stroke.
  4. The exhaust valve opens. The piston moves back up, forcing the waste combustion gases out through the exhaust valve. This is called the exhaust stroke. As the piston begins traveling back down the cylinder, the exhaust valve closes, the intake valve opens to let in air and fuel, and a new intake stroke begins, starting a new four-stroke cycle. A complete four-stroke cycle can be described as intake stroke/compression stroke/power stroke/exhaust stroke.

One complete cycle of a four-stroke engine will turn the engine's crankshaft twice. A car engine's pistons can reciprocate (move up and down) hundreds of times in a minute, turning the crankshaft, which transmits its power into turning the car's wheels. The more air and fuel that can get into a cylinder, generally the more powerful the engine will be.

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Most engines that run on gasoline can also be powered with natural gas or LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), with some minor modifications to the fuel delivery system. The basic method of combustion is the same as with gasoline.

A diesel engine is similar to a gasoline engine except that only air enters the cylinder during the intake stroke, and only air is compressed during the compression stroke. The fuel is sprayed into the cylinder at the end of the compression stroke, when the air temperature is high enough to cause it to ignite spontaneously without a spark.

Diesel engines are usually heavier and more powerful than gasoline engines and they have better fuel efficiency. They are used in buses, trucks, ships, and some automobiles. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reported in 2010 that around half of the passenger cars in Europe were diesel-powered, compared to only four percent of cars in the United States. One reason for that discrepancy concerns taxes on fuel. European taxes are higher on gasoline than on diesel (making diesel comparatively cheaper in Europe than gasoline). Another reason pertains to U.S. laws and attitudes toward diesel emissions compared to those from gasoline. For some types of emissions, such as particulates, diesel fuel has more than gasoline.

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Understanding Octane

Gasoline comes in several varieties labeled with words such as “regular” or “supreme,” each with a number. That number is the gasoline's octane rating, which indicates how much the fuel, when in vapor form, can be compressed before it will spontaneously ignite. In a car engine, gasoline is supposed to ignite in one of the engine's cylinders when it is lit by a spark plug; it is not supposed to ignite on its own.

When it ignites on its own, the engine “knocks.” This can damage the engine. Higher-octane gasoline is generally more expensive than lower-octane gasoline. High-performance cars increase their horsepower by increasing the amount of compression in the engine, which makes knocking more likely. That is why high-performance cars have to use expensive, high octane gasoline.

Coal-burning engines Using coal for heat and cooking can be as straightforward as putting coal in a stove and setting it on fire; the coal burns slowly and emits steady heat. But an even more dramatic way that coal had an effect on people's lives was through its use as a fuel for engines, such as steam engines that powered locomotives that pulled trains. Coal-burning locomotives used steam to power their wheels. A locomotive works like this:

  1. To keep the fire burning, the locomotive has to carry a large pile of coal, which a person called the fireman constantly shovels into the firebed. (More modern locomotives have mechanical shovels to feed the fires.) Page 8  |  Top of Article
  2. The ashes left over from the burning coal fall through grates into an ash pan below the firebed. The ashes are dumped at the end of the train's run.
  3. This basic process was not only used in trains. Steam engines also powered riverboats, steamships, and factories.

Most trains in the 21st century are powered by diesel fuel or electricity. China still uses coal-burning trains for normal transportation. However, in Europe and the United States, steam locomotives are now only used as part of museum displays, or operated on dedicated rails lines to entertain tourists.

Where electricity comes from Fossil fuels are important for the production of electricity. Most power plants have generators that spin to create electricity, which is then sent out through the wires and poles that distribute it to consumers. Something has to power those generators. The vast majority of power plants burn fossil fuels for this purpose. (Nearly all the rest use nuclear power or hydroelectric power.)

In 2010, about one-half of the electricity in the United States came from coal-burning power plants according to the EIA. These plants store their coal in giant outdoor piles. People driving bulldozers push the coal onto conveyor belts that carry it up to silos or bunkers (structures that store the coal).

Most often the coal is crushed before being fed into a power station furnace. Prepared coal is placed into giant burners that burn night and day to create steam to turn the generator. Most plants need constant deliveries of coal to have enough fuel to keep the burners running at all times. They produce large amounts of leftover ash. One of the jobs of plant operators is to keep the ash from clogging up the works.

Natural gas is the other significant fossil fuel source of electrical power in the United States, supplying nearly one-quarter of the nation's electricity in 2010. Natural gas plants use turbines to spin generators. The turbines are connected to pipelines that provide a constant supply of natural gas. Some plants use the natural gas to power the generator directly. Others use the natural gas to create steam, which spins the generator.

The U.S. government encourages power companies to build plants powered by natural gas because natural gas burns much more cleanly than coal and therefore does not create as much pollution. The U.S.

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Department of Energy predicts that 90 percent of new power plants built in the United States throughout the 2010s and 2020s will be powered by natural gas.

Historical overview: Notable discoveries and the people who made them Humans have been using fossil fuels for thousands of years, possibly as long ago as 20,000 years. Oil sometimes seeps up through the ground, so it was easy for people to see it and experiment with it. The ancient Mesopotamians in what is now Iraq may have discovered a way to use oil about 5,000 years ago. Historians believe that people first used petroleum as oil for lighting, dipping wood in it and setting it on fire as a torch. Ancient Greeks and Romans used coal as a fuel for heat and cooking. Ancient temples sometimes had eternal flames, which may have been powered by natural gas leaking up from the ground.

In the British Isles, people began using coal in the late 13th century, and it was the dominant fuel in London by 1600. Wood was abundant, so coal took time to become widely adopted. The first widespread use of fossil fuels occurred in the late 1700s, with the development of the steam engine and the start of the Industrial Revolution. James Watt (1736–1819) is usually credited as the inventor of the first commercially efficient steam engine in 1769. However, his work was based on the inventions of others, particularly that of the Cornish engineer Thomas Newcomen (1664–1729), whose atmospheric steam engine was completed in 1711.

The steam engine, powered by coal, made the Industrial Revolution possible. Steam engines could power trains, boats, and factories. The first coal-burning steam locomotive was built in Wales in 1804. In 1825 coal-powered trains became available for commercial use. Robert Fulton (1765–1815; see image on page 10) invented the steam-powered riverboat in 1807, and riverboats became a popular way to travel up and down the Mississippi River in the United States. In 1819 a steamship crossed the Atlantic Ocean for the first time. By the mid–1800s people were regularly traveling between Europe and the United States on coal-powered steamships.

People began using natural gas to power lamps in 1785 in England. Natural gas lamps became common in the United States around 1816. The first natural gas well was built in Fredonia, New York, in 1821.

In the 1850s, American lawyer George Bissell (1821–1884) investigated the possibility of using oil as lamp fuel. He thought he could find

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Robert Fulton was an American engineer who invented the steam-powered riverboat.

Robert Fulton was an American engineer who invented the steam-powered riverboat. © VLADIMIR KOROSTYSHEVSKIY/SHUTTERSTOCK.COM.

more oil if he drilled into the ground, so he hired Edwin Drake (1819–1880) to drill the first oil well. This well was completed in Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859. Drake used the oil to make kerosene, which people used in lamps and heaters.

Gasoline was a by-product (one of the leftovers) of the process of making kerosene, but no one at the time had a real use for it. It is interesting to note that in modern refineries, a 42-gallon barrel of oil yields 19.4 gallons of gasoline and just slightly over 10 gallons of diesel fuel, with smaller amounts of other fuel types, such as jet fuel. (These figures are based on 2009 statistics gathered by the U.S. Department of Energy.) After Drake created the first oil well, people began looking for oil elsewhere, and they found it in places such as Indonesia, Texas, and the Middle East.

By the end of the 19th century, many people were using lightbulbs instead of kerosene lamps, so oil producers began adapting their product for other uses. The first gasoline-powered internal combustion engine

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Henry Ford, pictured here with a Model T, mass produced cars through use of an assembly line.

Henry Ford, pictured here with a Model T, mass produced cars through use of an assembly line. © GETTY IMAGES.

was developed in 1886. The first mass-produced gasoline-powered car was the Oldsmobile, introduced in 1902. Henry Ford (1863–1947) introduced the Model T in 1908 and began producing his inexpensive cars on an assembly line. By 1920 there were 23 million cars in the world, and it turned out that gasoline was the most practical way to power them.

The Wright Brothers, Orville (1871–1948) and Wilbur (1867–1912), flew their first successful, engine-powered airplane in 1903. They used petroleum as their fuel, and from that point on airplanes were powered by petroleum-based fuels. Diesel fuel gradually replaced coal as the dominant fuel for large ships. Diesel locomotives appeared around 1920 and had largely replaced steam engines by 1960.

Consumption of all fossil fuels increased greatly during the 20th century. Petroleum was used to power automobiles, airplanes, ships, and electric plants. Coal heated homes, powered factories and trains, and generated electricity at power plants. Toward the latter half of the 20th century, the oil industry began to develop the potential of natural gas, and this fuel became useful in homes and businesses as well as in industry. Minor fossil fuels such as kerosene, propane, and butane were all widely used in the early 21st century. Perhaps the most notable transition from the 20th to the 21st century is from stationary devices burning solid

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fuels (such as factories burning coal) to mobile sources using liquid fuels (such as cars, heavy trucks, and jet airplanes burning gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel, respectively).

Current and future technology Fossil fuels supply a large percentage of the world's energy needs—nearly 90 percent in 2010—through a variety of technologies. Most automobiles and other vehicles use gasoline to power internal combustion engines, in which the burning that generates power takes place inside the engine. Coal or gasoline is burned to power factory equipment. Coal-fired plants generate much of the world's electricity. Almost every 21st-century technology uses fossil fuels in some way.

Fossil fuel technology is in a state of change. Scientists are constantly looking for technology that makes fossil fuels work more efficiently and reduces pollution. Fossil fuels are so common and considered so necessary that there is great incentive for engineers to improve methods of acquiring and using fossil fuels. Technology under development includes:

  • Clean coal technology.
  • Vehicles powered by natural gas or substances other than gasoline or petrodiesel. (Petrodiesel is derived from petroleum, whereas biodiesel is derived from organic matter such as soybeans.)
  • Fuel cells that use small amounts of fossil fuel, such as methanol or butane, to make hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The hydrogen is then combined with oxygen to produce electricity.
  • Safer means of transporting fossil fuels.
  • Improved techniques for cleaning fossil fuels before, during, and after burning.
  • Improvements in extracting fossil fuels from the ground.

Benefits and drawbacks of fossil fuels Most existing power technology was designed for use with fossil fuels. Fossil fuel transport systems are already in place. Pipelines for oil and natural gas, and trucks and ships for petroleum products, move the fossil fuels where they are needed. And consumers can buy the fossil fuel products they use at a variety of convenient locations.

Yet, fossil fuels are non-renewable resources. Current supplies took a very long time to form under Earth's crust. These supplies will be gone long before Earth has a chance to replace them. Even now, mining and drilling for fossil fuels presents a major drawback to using them.

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Countries that do not have reserves of oil and natural gas must depend on those countries that do. And using fossil fuels contributes to air and water pollution.

Environmental impact of fossil fuels Fossil fuels cause or contribute to environmental problems such as the following:

  • Damage to the landscape
  • Air pollution
  • Water pollution
  • Oil spills
  • Radioactivity (Coal contains the radioactive elements uranium and thorium, and most coal-fired plants emit more radiation than a nuclear power plant.)
  • Health problems for workers and those nearby (Many fossil fuel byproducts can be harmful to humans: breathing toxic hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter can cause ailments such as chest pain, coughing, asthma, chronic bronchitis, decreased lung function, and cancer; exposure to mercury can lead to nerve damage, birth defects, learning disabilities, and even death.)

Some experts believe the environmental problems are so serious that people need to find alternatives to fossil fuels long before all reserves are used up. Others believe that technological improvements will allow the use of fossil fuels for many years to come.

Damage to the landscape Fossil fuels are found underground. There is no way to get them out without cutting into or removing the dirt or rock on top of deposits. Strip mining for coal involves removing the dirt and rocks above a deposit of coal and digging out the coal beneath it. Miners sometimes remove the tops of mountains to remove the coal below. Mines below the earth's surface can collapse, resulting in changes to the landscape on top of them.

Though drilling for oil and natural gas is not always as destructive as coal mining, it still involves machinery that can destroy animal habitats and pipelines that cut across the land for thousands of miles.

Air pollution Air pollution results from driving cars and trucks, from burning coal and other fossil fuels to create electricity, from industry, from using gas-powered stoves and appliances, and from many

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other daily activities. As the number of drivers increases, air pollution increases as well. Even using vehicles that do not burn fossil fuels, such as electric cars, can still indirectly produce air pollution, since much of the electricity produced by power companies is generated through the burning of coal or natural gas. As the number of people using electricity increases, so does air pollution.

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Where Does Air Pollution Come From?

According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), mobile sources, such as cars, trucks, buses, trains, airplanes, and boats, represent the largest contributors to U.S. air toxics. More than half of all nitrogen oxide air pollution in the United States comes from on road and non-road vehicles. The rest comes from industry, such as power plants and factories. But the EPA states that the majority of all hydrocarbons (53 percent) and particulate matter (72 percent) comes from non-mobile sources such as power plants and factories.

There are several types of air pollution:

  • Particulate matter consists of tiny particles of burned fossil fuels that float in the air. This kind of pollution is sometimes called black carbon pollution. Examples of coarse particulate matter include the smoke that comes from a diesel-powered
  • truck or the soot that rises from a charcoal-burning grill. However, in addition to the visible black particulate matter, there is the fine material—less than 2.5 microns—that creates large health problems. (A micron is one-millionth of a meter; a standard sheet of copy paper is about 100 microns thick.)
  • Smog is a mixture of air pollutants, both gases and particles, that create a haze near the ground. Sulfate particles, created when sulfur dioxide combines with other chemicals in the air, and ozone are the main causes of smog and haze in most of the United States.
  • Ozone is a form of oxygen that contains three oxygen atoms per ozone molecule. (O2, the form of oxygen that humans need to survive, contains two oxygen atoms per molecule.) Ozone is common in Earth's atmosphere, where it blocks much of the sun's ultraviolet radiation, preventing it from burning up most forms of life on the surface. Although it is beneficial and necessary in the atmosphere, ozone is also destructive and highly toxic to humans. Ozone forms spontaneously from the energy of sunlight in the air, but it can also form from other reactions, such as sparks from electrical motors or the use of high voltage electrical equipment such as televisions. Fossil fuel pollution contributes nitrogen oxides and other organic gases that can react to create ozone. Ozone forms close to the ground on sunny days, especially in cities.
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  • Sulfur dioxide is a by-product of burning fossil fuels. It is one of the key ingredients of acid rain. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers the reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions a crucial part of the effort to clean up the nation's air. The United States has set national air quality standards, and state and local governments are required to meet them.
  • Nitrogen oxides are molecules that contain nitrogen and oxygen in different amounts. Most often, nitrogen oxides are present as colorless and odorless gases. Almost all nitrogen oxides are created by the burning of fossil fuels in motor vehicles, power plants, and industry. Nitrogen oxides react with sulfur dioxide to produce acid rain. They also contribute to the formation of ozone near the ground, and they form particulate matter that clouds vision and toxic chemicals that are dangerous to humans and animals. In addition, they harm water quality by overloading water with nutrients. Finally, they are believed to contribute to global warming.
  • Carbon monoxide is one of the main sources of indoor air pollutants. It forms from the burning of fossil fuels in appliances such as kerosene and gas space heaters, gas water heaters, gas stoves and fireplaces, leaking chimneys and furnaces, gasoline-powered generators, automobile exhaust in enclosed garages, and other sources. Carbon monoxide binds with the iron atoms in hemoglobin


The burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, contributes to air quality problems in China. Here, a woman wears a face mask as she and other cyclists ride their bikes in Beijing.

The burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, contributes to air quality problems in China. Here, a woman wears a face mask as she and other cyclists ride their bikes in Beijing. © DAVID GRAY/REUTERS.

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(the part of the blood that carries oxygen) and prevents the blood from taking up enough oxygen to keep the brain running.

The United States and the individual states have passed various laws regulating air pollution. The Clean Air Act is one of the most important. The Clean Air Act of 1970 received major amendments in 1990 and some minor changes since them. Basically, it requires states to meet air quality standards, creates committees to handle pollution that crosses borders between states or from Mexico or Canada, and allows the EPA to enforce the law by fining polluters. It creates a program allowing polluting businesses to apply for and buy permits that let them release a certain amount of pollutants. Businesses can buy, sell, and trade these permits. They can receive credits if they release fewer emissions than they are allowed to produce.

One major difficulty with controlling air pollution is that some pollutants can travel thousands of miles from their sources. Certain types of air pollution in one state can originate from a coal-burning plant in another. For that reason, air pollution regulations must focus on large regions if they are to have any effect at all.

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Accidental Death

Burning a charcoal grill or kerosene heater or running a car engine inside an enclosed space, such as a closed garage, can produce enough carbon monoxide to kill a person. Every year people die from inhaling concentrated carbon monoxide. Death comes easily and without warning because the victim often does not notice any symptoms. He or she simply gets sleepy from a lack of oxygen, loses consciousness, and dies as carbon monoxide builds up in the blood.

Acid rain Acid rain is rain with small amounts of acid mixed into it. When sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released from burning fossil fuels, they mix with water and oxygen in the atmosphere and turn into acids. The acids in acid rain are not strong enough to dissolve a person, but they can contribute to environmental problems, such as the following:

  • Polluting lakes and streams, which can kill fish, other animals, and aquatic plants and disrupt entire ecosystems
  • Damaging trees at high elevations
  • Deteriorating the stone, brick, metal, and paint used in everything from buildings and bridges to outdoor artworks and historical sculptures
  • Damaging the paint on cars
  • Impairing visibility by filling the air with tiny particles
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  • Causing health problems in humans when the toxins in the rainfall go into the fruits, vegetables, and animals that people eat.

The EPA has an acid rain program that limits the amount of sulfur dioxide that power plants can produce, and the program has reduced emissions to a degree. Reducing emissions overall should contribute to eliminating acid rain.

Climate change and global warming Most scientists believe that the use of fossil fuels has changed the world's climate, and that this change is continuing. Burning fossil fuels releases gases called greenhouse gases, which include carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Greenhouse gases are good at trapping heat.

When the sun's radiation hits Earth, some of the heat is reflected back into space. When greenhouse gases get into the atmosphere, they act like the transparent glass or plastic of a greenhouse, which allows in visible light, but prevents the heat (infrared light) that builds up from escaping—back through the glass in the case of the greenhouse, or back into space in the case of the atmosphere. Ordinarily, holding heat in would be a good thing, because life on Earth depends on keeping some of the sun's heat on the surface.

Since the Industrial Revolution, however, the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased. The amount of carbon dioxide has increased 30 percent; the amount of methane has increased 100 percent; and the amount of nitrous oxide has risen 15 percent. These gases make the atmosphere better at keeping heat in. As a result, most climate experts think that Earth's temperature has risen and continues to rise.

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Kyoto Protocol

In 1997 many of the world's nations agreed to work together to reduce greenhouse gases and stop climate change. These nations signed an agreement in Kyoto, Japan, referred to as the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol sets targets for reducing emissions and deadlines for nations to meet those targets. The United States and Australia chose not to participate for many years after the protocol was passed because it does not place the same requirements on developing nations as it does on industrialized nations. Follow-up meetings to the Kyoto Protocol have been held many times since 1997. The 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Cancún, Mexico.

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a scientific body established by the United Nations to study and report on climate change, temperatures measured worldwide rose by an average of about 1.4°F (0.8°C) during the 20th century. Furthermore, in 2008 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) issued reports stating that the Earth's surface temperature had warmed on average about 1°F (0.55°C) just since the mid 1970s.

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Most scientists accept that the extensive use of fossil fuels is significantly impacting the worlds climate. Such changes include global warming, which causes icebergs to melt at an increased rate and sea levels to rise.

Most scientists accept that the extensive use of fossil fuels is significantly impacting the world's climate. Such changes include global warming, which causes icebergs to melt at an increased rate and sea levels to rise. © IMAGIX/SHUTTERSTOCK. COM.

The increase in global temperatures can cause many problems. A possible effect is a rise in sea levels, which can change the shape of coastlines; cause changes in forests, crops, and water supplies; and harm the health of humans and animals. Fossil fuels account for 98 percent of carbon dioxide emissions, 24 percent of methane emissions, and 18 percent of nitrous oxide emissions.

Oil spills and leaks When transporting petroleum, there is always the danger that the oil will leak out of its tank and contaminate the local

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environment. Many oil spills occur when a giant tanker ship crashes and the petroleum leaks out of the tank into the ocean. Spills can also happen when oil wells or pipelines break, or when tanker ships wash their giant tanks, rinsing the residue straight into the ocean.

When oil gets into the ocean, it quickly spreads over the surface of the water, forming an oil slick. The oil clumps into tar balls and an oil-water mixture called mousse. Seabirds and marine mammals get caught in the oil and die.

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Build a Better Tanker

Modern oil tankers are now built with double hulls, which are much stronger and spill-resistant than the previous single hulls of older tankers. Double hull means there are two layers of steel with a gap between them, isolating the oil from the ocean. If a double-hulled tanker runs aground on rocks or a coral reef and its steel bottom is torn open, the oil is still held inside the tanker by the second steel hull. This is in stark contrast to single-hull tankers: oil immediately leaks out if their steel hull is penetrated.

The Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989 led to passage of the U.S. Oil Pollution Act of 1990. The act aims to prevent future oil spills, but also specifies certain measures to be taken whenever a tanker spill does occur. The act also mandates the phasing out of single-hull oil tankers in favor of the double-hulled type.


An oil supertanker makes its way across the ocean.

An oil supertanker makes its way across the ocean. © LEON T/SHUTTERSTOCK.COM.

The 1989 wreck of the Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound, Alaska, caused the worst oil spill seen in North America until the Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. The Valdez hit and slid onto a coral reef. The incident caused 11 million gallons of the tanker's 53-million-gallon oil cargo to spread over 1,200 miles (1,930 kilometers) of shoreline, killing over 1,000 sea otters and between 100,000 and 300,000 seabirds. At least 153 bald eagles also died from

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eating dead seabirds covered with oil. The cleanup cost nearly $3 billion, a large portion of that furnished by the U.S. government.

In 1994 the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council was established to supervise the ecological restoration of the areas affected by the 1989 oil spill. Periodically the council publishes a list detailing the ongoing status of, among other things, species harmed by the spill. The 2010 list indicated that species such as sea otters and clams in the spill area were in the process of recovering. However, Pacific herring were listed as not recovering. This revealed that even after a period of 20 years, the ecosystems in the area of Prince William Sound and beyond were still negatively affected.

On average, almost 14,000 oil spills are reported each year in the United States. Usually, the owner of the oil or the tanker takes responsibility for cleanup. Occasionally, local, state, and federal agencies must help. The EPA takes care of spills in inland waters, and the U.S. Coast Guard responds to spills in coastal waters and deepwater ports.

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill released much more oil than did the Exxon Valdez incident. Sometimes referred to as the BP Oil Spill or the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill, the undersea gusher that resulted holds the record as the largest accidental release of oil in history.

Starting with the April 20, 2010 explosion of the Deepwater Horizon, which led to the deaths of 11 crew members working on it, the resulting


A brown pelican is covered in oil following the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion, which led to the worst offshore oil spill in U.S. history.

A brown pelican is covered in oil following the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion, which led to the worst offshore oil spill in U.S. history. © AP IMAGES/CHARLIE RIEDEL.

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A Greenpeace worker is shown collecting samples of oil that washed up along the mouth of the Mississippi River near Venice, Louisiana, about a month after the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion.

A Greenpeace worker is shown collecting samples of oil that washed up along the mouth of the Mississippi River near Venice, Louisiana, about a month after the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion. © AP IMAGES/CHARLIE RIEDEL.

rupture to the deep underwater oil well eventually released nearly 5 million barrels (a little over 200 million gallons) of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico over a period of nearly three months, until the well was finally capped on July 15, 2010.

Hundreds of miles of shoreline along the Louisiana coast alone were contaminated with oil and tar balls. Several thousand square miles of the Gulf of Mexico were declared off-limits to seafood harvesting. Tourism in the southern Gulf states was also negatively affected to one degree or another. Thousands of birds and marine animals died as a result of the prolonged spill. As a result of the Deepwater Horizon disaster, in May

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2010 the Obama administration declared a temporary moratorium on offshore U.S. drilling for six months. In 2011, scientists projected that the ecological damage due to the spill might linger for decades to come.

The long-term effects of oil spills are not known. Though it appears that it is possible to eventually clean up most of the oil and that the local ecosystem can recover, it also seems that some of the effects of oil are very long-lasting, as demonstrated by the Exxon Valdez and Deepwater Horizon oil spills.

Economic impact of fossil fuels Because they have been plentiful and are usually less expensive than other energy sources, fossil fuels supply nearly all of the world's energy. In the early 21st century, the world economy is based on inexpensive fossil fuel. Almost all modes of transportation and industries require fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly. Prices of consumer goods and services from food to airline tickets are partly determined by the cost of fuel. When the price of oil goes up, people who sell goods and services often must raise their prices because it costs more to make or deliver products.

As developing nations increase their use of automobiles, electricity, and other goods and services, their demands for fossil fuels increase. For example, oil consumption in China grew rapidly in the early 21st century. At the beginning of the 2010s, China was consuming the second largest amount of oil in the world, behind only the United States. China does not have sufficient fuel reserves to supply its own needs, so it must buy petroleum from other countries. Oil producers can raise their prices because they have several buyers competing to purchase their product.

Yet fossil fuels are still the cheapest source of power in the modern world. Alternative energy sources, such as solar power or hydrogen fuel cells, are much more expensive. Most people will not choose an expensive source of power when a cheap one is available, even if the cheap source contributes to pollution. For example, many coal-burning power plants still produce large amounts of pollution because the cost of controlling the pollution is deemed too expensive. This is especially true in developing nations where the environmental laws and regulations are not as stringent as those in the developed countries.

Societal impact of fossil fuels Modern life would be impossible without fossil fuels, and in many ways fossil fuels have benefited people. The fact that fossil fuels are everywhere means that it is nearly impossible to take

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any action without using them. In many houses, turning on a light uses fossil fuels. Shopping, eating, going to school, and sleeping in a heated or air conditioned home require the burning of fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are an important global issue. Countries have clashed over the issue of oil.

Air and water pollution are also global issues. The pollutants that come from fossil fuels can spread from country to country. Developing nations, such as Thailand and China, have been rapidly increasing the number of cars owned. For instance, in 2009 China surpassed the United States to become the largest market for motor vehicles in the world. Such trends in developing countries are also evident in the rise in the number of fossil fuel-powered factories and power plants. This has resulted in an increase in air pollution.

International groups that want to protect the environment must balance air and water quality with the desire of poorer nations to improve their economies. The less developed countries feel that the countries of Europe and the United States were allowed to use fossil fuels to build their economies, regardless of the environmental consequences. As such, they believe that they, too, should be given that opportunity without being forced to worry about pollution.

Issues, challenges, and obstacles in the use of fossil fuels Fossil fuels are widely used and widely accepted. Nevertheless, there are ways to make fossil fuels less polluting, such as the use of clean coal technology and hybrid automobiles. These technologies have not yet become widespread, in part because they cost more than the methods that are currently used. As pollution increases and the demand for fossil fuels grows, new methods of using fossil fuels will likely become more common.

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If Petroleum Formed in the Ocean, Why Are So Many Oil Wells on Land?

When petroleum was forming, much of the area that is now dry land was covered with water. The ocean has moved away since then, but the oil is still there. In addition, many oil wells are out in the ocean, not on land at all.

Petroleum

According to the International Energy Agency, petroleum is the most widely used fossil fuel, supplying nearly 40 percent of the world's energy in 2009. Petroleum is also called oil. One of the most important uses of petroleum is as fuel for motor vehicles. It can also be used to pave roads, to make other chemicals, and to moisturize skin.

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In an effort to reduce the use of fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions, many automotive companies are producing hybrid vehicles that run on a combination of gas and electricity.

In an effort to reduce the use of fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions, many automotive companies are producing hybrid vehicles that run on a combination of gas and electricity. © GYUSZKOFOTO/SHUTTERSTOCK.COM.

Petroleum is a hydrocarbon, which means it is made up mostly of molecules that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms. It also contains some oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and metal salts. The term petroleum encompasses several different kinds of liquid hydrocarbons. The main ones are oil, tar, and natural gas.

Origins of petroleum The ingredients in petroleum include microscopic plants and bacteria that lived in the ocean millions of years ago. When they died, these plants and bacteria fell to the bottom of the ocean and mixed with the sand and mud there. This process continued for millions of years, and gradually the layers at the bottom were crushed by the layers above them. The mud became hotter, and the pressure and heat slowly transformed it. The minerals turned into a kind of stone called shale, or mudstone, and the organic matter turned into petroleum and natural gas.

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Because they are not solid, petroleum and natural gas can move around. They seep into holes in undersea rocks such as limestone and sandstone, called reservoir rocks. These rocks are porous—meaning they have tiny holes in them that allow liquids and gases to pass through—and function as sponges. Because they are lighter than water, oil and gas migrate upward, although still trapped within Earth's crust. Sometimes the oil and gas end up in an area of rock that is not porous and is shaped in such a way that it can contain liquid and gas. This area becomes a reservoir, or geologic trap, that holds the petroleum and natural gas. Rock formations especially good at trapping hydrocarbons include anticlines, or layers of rock that bend downward; salt domes, or anticlines with a mass of rock salt at the core; and fault traps, or spaces between cracks in Earth's crust.

Within a trap, petroleum, natural gas, and water separate into layers, still within the porous reservoir rocks. Water is the heaviest and stays on the bottom. Petroleum sits on top of the water, and natural gas sits on top of the petroleum. Sometimes the natural gas and petroleum inside a trap find a path to the surface and seep out.

Finding petroleum Geologists are scientists who study the history of Earth and its life as recorded in rocks. When looking for oil, they want to find underground geologic traps because these traps often contain petroleum that can be removed by drilling. Geologists use a variety of techniques to find oil traps. They use seismology (syze-MAH-luh-jee), sending shock waves through the rock and examining the waves that bounce back.

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Is Petroleum Really a Fossil Fuel?

Some scientists in Russia and Ukraine believe that petroleum is not actually a fossil fuel but that it formed in Earth's crust from rocks and minerals rather than plants and animals. These scientists believe that the formation of oil requires higher pressure than the formation of coal and that there is not enough organic matter in Earth's deposits to explain the amount of petroleum available in large fields. Scientists in other countries disagree with this idea.

Geologists also study the surface of the land, examining the shape of the ground and the types of rocks and soil present. These scientists use gravity meters and magnetometers to find changes in Earth's gravity or magnetic fields that indicate the presence of flowing oil. They use electronic “sniffers” to search for the smell of hydrocarbons. Finding oil is difficult. Scientists searching for oil have only about a 10-percent success rate.

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Petroleum is present all over the world, but large concentrations of it exist in only a few places. These accumulations are called fields, and they are the places where oil companies drill for oil. The largest oil fields in the world are in the Middle East, especially in Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Kuwait, and in North Africa. There are also large fields in Indonesia, Nigeria, Mexico, Venezuela, Kazakhstan, Russia, and several U.S. states, including Alaska, California, Louisiana, and Texas.

Extracting petroleum Once an oil company finds oil in the ground, it has to get the oil out in order to sell it. First the company has to take care of legal matters, such as getting rights to the area it wants to drill. Once that is done, the company builds an oil well, or rig.

All oil rigs have the following basic elements:

  • A derrick, which is a tall structure that supports the drill apparatus above ground
  • A power source, such as a diesel engine, that powers electric generators
  • A mechanical system, including a hoist and a turntable
  • Drilling equipment, including drill pipe and drill bits
  • Casing to line the drill hole and prevent it from collapsing

    Large oil fields exist in the Middle East, North Africa, and a few other regions. One of the largest oil fields is found in Tengiz, Kazakhstan. At this plant, sulfur is separated from crude oil and gas.
    Large oil fields exist in the Middle East, North Africa, and a few other regions. One of the largest oil fields is found in Tengiz, Kazakhstan. At this plant, sulfur is separated from crude oil and gas. © REZA/GETTY IMAGES.

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  • A circulation system that pulls rock and mud out of the hole
  • A system of valves to relieve pressure and prevent uncontrolled rushes of gas or oil to the surface.

As oil workers drill deeper, they add sections of pipe to the drill and add casings to the hole to keep it stable. They drill until they reach the geologic trap that contains the oil and gas. To get the oil out of reservoir rocks, workers pump in acid or a fluid containing substances to break down the rock and allow the oil to seep into the well. The workers then remove the rig and install a pump in its place. The pump pulls the oil out of the well. Once the oil has been removed from the ground, the oil company must transport the crude oil to a refinery. The most common means of transporting oil are tanker ships, tanker trucks, and pipelines.

Making petroleum useful Crude oil arrives at the refinery with a great deal of water and salt mixed into it. The water and oil are mixed together in droplets forming an emulsion, which is something like what happens to a salad dressing made of oil and vinegar. The water and oil may eventually separate out into their layers, but this process can take a very long time in thick crude oil. To speed the process, oil refineries heat the crude oil to a temperature at which the water can move more easily. The water molecules then come together and leave the oil. The water also takes the salt out of the oil with it.


Oil pumps are shown at work on an oil field. In some states, including Texas and Oklahoma, such pumps are a common sight.

Oil pumps are shown at work on an oil field. In some states, including Texas and Oklahoma, such pumps are a common sight. © QINGQING/SHUTTERSTOCK.COM.

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The Oil Sands of Canada

Since the 1960s, investors and developers have worked to extract crude oil stored in the oil sands of Alberta, Canada. In 2009, industry analysts estimated the amount of proven Canadian oil reserves at nearly 180 billion barrels—95 percent of those oil reserves were attributed to the Alberta oil sands. The Canadian oil resources are second only to Saudi Arabia (with 260 billion) in terms of proven oil reserves. Others believe the amount of reserve oil in Alberta is much higher, possibly at 300 billion barrels, with more buried deep underground.

People dreamed for decades of striking it rich by getting the oil out of Canada's sand. However, techniques are still being refined due to the technical difficulty and expense of removing it. Compared to the relative ease of getting the oil that comes gushing out of fields in the Middle East and Texas, the existing process for turning oil sand into crude oil is difficult and expensive. It requires oversized trucks and shovels to dig out the sand and various machines to crush it, mix it with hot water, spin it to separate out the oil, and heat it to remove impurities.

The expense concerned oil investors. But political issues in the Middle East and other oil-producing nations, coupled with soaring fuel prices, finally made oil removal from Alberta's sands profitable. With world demand for crude oil growing, in particular to meet the needs of the United States and China, many residents and government officials in Alberta and Canada saw the potential for job creation and huge profits for the province and the rest of the country. In addition to making money by selling the oil, Canada could also potentially use the oil to negotiate with other countries on trade and political issues.

In the decades to come, Canada may become one of the biggest players in the fossil fuel economy, though the benefits may come at a high cost. A 2011 analysis projected output from Canadian oil sands could reach nearly 4 million barrels per day by 2025. However, the large amounts of natural gas and water used in the separation process pose major concerns for environmentalists. So does the excavation of thousands of tons of mud and sand, which creates large mining pits in the Alberta landscape. Although Alberta oil sand industry officials have promised to improve technology to clean up their greenhouse gas emissions and refill the mines and replant trees, groups such as the Sierra Club of Canada have their doubts. They question if technology will progress fast enough or trees grow quickly enough to make it worth the environmental damage.

The increasing demand for crude oil will most certainly transform Canada's economy and landscape as the oil sands become a valuable energy source for the world. Canada has supplied oil to the United States for many years. In 2011, the U.S. State Department reported that 20 percent of oil imported into the United States was from Canada, more than from any other nation.

The refinery distills crude oil to sort it into its different forms. Crude oil has many different kinds of molecules, some much larger than others. The refinery sorts out these molecules so that molecules of the same size are all together. A refinery is shaped like a tower with trays stacked one

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above the other. Heating the crude oil makes the molecules turn into gases. These gases move up inside the refinery's tower. As they travel upward in the tower, the gases become colder. At certain temperatures, they become liquids again. The liquids drip back down and are caught in one of the trays. The higher the gas travels, the higher the tray it ends up in. The largest molecules stay at the bottom. The smallest molecules make it all the way to the top of the tower. The lighter molecules are turned into gasoline and other fuels. The heavier ones become engine lubricants, asphalt, wax, and other substances.

There is a much larger market for gasoline and other fuels than for the products made from heavier molecules, so refineries try to make as much gasoline as possible. They can sometimes break down larger molecules into smaller ones. They do this through a process called cracking, which uses either heat or chemical catalysts to break down the large molecules. The U.S. Department of Energy reported that industry statistics for 2009 showed that U.S. refineries produced, on average, about 19.4 gallons of gasoline from each 42-gallon barrel of crude oil.

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Stopping the Knocking

The question of how to prevent engine knocking has occupied petroleum engineers for many years. In the mid-20th century, they added lead to gasoline to make it burn more efficiently. In 1979 leaded gasoline became illegal in the United States due to fears of lead poisoning in children. Since that time MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) has been added to gasoline in the United States to enhance octane. It has done a great job of reducing emissions from car engines, but it is not perfect. People are concerned that MTBE is dangerous when it gets into drinking water, and they want to find a substitute. Ethanol has been used in some cases, but it has drawbacks, too.

Current and potential uses of petroleum Petroleum has many uses. It can take on different consistencies depending on how much it is refined. About 90 percent of the petroleum used in the United States is used as fuel for vehicles. In 2010, about 70 percent of the petroleum consumed in the United States was used as fuel for transportation, including cars, trucks, trains, and airplanes. Fuel types include:

  • Motor gasoline used to power automobiles, light trucks, or pickup trucks that people drive as their daily transportation, boats, recreational vehicles, and farm equipment such as tractors
  • Distillate fuel oil, including the diesel fuel used to power diesel engines in trucks, buses, trains, and some automobiles
  • Heating oil to heat buildings and power industrial boilers
  • LPGs (liquid petroleum gases), including propane and butane. Propane is used for heating and to power appliances. Butane is used as fuel and is blended with gasoline
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  • Jet fuel, which is a kerosene-based fuel that ignites at a higher temperature and freezes at a lower temperature than gasoline, making it safer to use in commercial airplanes
  • Residual fuel oil used by utilities to generate electricity
  • Kerosene used to heat homes and businesses and to light lamps
  • Aviation gasoline, which is a high-octane gasoline used to fuel some aircraft
  • Petroleum coke used as a low-ash solid fuel for power plants and industry.

Petroleum has many other uses, including:

  • Petrolatum, or petroleum jelly, used as a moisturizer and lubricant
  • Paraffin wax used in candles, candy making, matches, polishes, and packaging
  • Asphalt or tar used to pave roads or make roofs
  • Solvents used in paints and inks
  • Lubricating oils for engines and machines
  • Petroleum feedstock used to make plastics, synthetic rubber, and chemicals.


Over the years, petroleum was used in the production of various cosmetics. Concerns about the use of petroleum have prompted some makeup manufacturers to replace it with other ingredients. Such products are now marketed as being petroleum-free.

Over the years, petroleum was used in the production of various cosmetics. Concerns about the use of petroleum have prompted some makeup manufacturers to replace it with other ingredients. Such products are now marketed as being petroleum-free. © KULISH VIKTORIIA/SHUTTERSTOCK. COM.

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At the beginning of the 2010s, the United States used more than 300 billion gallons of oil annually. About one-half of that amount came from domestic wells; the other half was imported.

Benefits and drawbacks of petroleum As compared to other fossil fuels, petroleum is easy to retrieve, refine, and use. It is fairly easy to transport and store. It is not prone to exploding spontaneously, so it is relatively safe to keep near homes. Petroleum burns easily, making it the ideal fuel for internal combustion engines. Petroleum has many applications in addition to fueling vehicles. These uses range from paving materials to skin moisturizers.

Using petroleum, however, has many drawbacks. It contributes to various types of environmental problems, including air and water pollution. There is only a limited supply of petroleum, which means that at some time in the future, the world's petroleum will be gone. When that happens, people will have to find another way of powering their vehicles, factories, and utilities.


Illustration showing how gas is transported, stored, and delivered to vehicles.

Illustration showing how gas is transported, stored, and delivered to vehicles. © PHIL HOLMES/SHUTTERSTOCK.COM.

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Fuel Economy in Cars

The Clean Air Act required car manufacturers to build vehicles to certain specifications that limited pollution. Certain types of vehicles, such as trucks, did not have to meet the same standards as cars because they were larger and there were relatively few people driving them at the time. Because sport utility vehicles (SUVs) are classified as light trucks under the law, they do not have to have the same level of fuel economy that a passenger car has. Car manufacturers like SUVs because they are inexpensive to make and can be sold for relatively high prices.

In 2009 the Obama administration increased the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) benchmarks for automakers. Starting with the model year 2012, average mileage for each automaker's vehicle fleet was set to increase by at least 5 percent each year. And in 2016, vehicle fleets must have achieved an average of just over 35 mpg, with cars required to achieve 39 mpg, and light trucks and SUVs needing 30 mpg to meet the new rules.

As gas prices rose and concerns about America's dependence on foreign oil began to concern Americans throughout the early 2000s and into


President Barack Obama announced more improved fuel efficiency standards for cars and light-duty trucks in July 2011.

President Barack Obama announced more improved fuel efficiency standards for cars and light-duty trucks in July 2011. © ANDREW HARRER/BLOOMBERG VIA GETTY IMAGES.

the early 2010s, hybrid cars became more appealing to many consumers. These cars are powered by a combination of gasoline or diesel engine combined with battery power, and they have considerably better mileage than conventional gasoline-powered cars.

Impact of petroleum Using petroleum as fuel contributes to many environmental problems. These include oil spills, which most often occur during the transportation of petroleum, but can also occur due to failure of the oil well itself, as in the case of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster; the destruction done by drilling for oil; contamination from pipeline ruptures and leaks; and air pollution. Drilling for oil, for instance, requires massive pieces of equipment and results in giant holes in the ground. Contamination happens when oil seeps into local soil and water. The people who live near oil wells and refineries sometimes suffer

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Increased gas prices in 2008 and again in 2011 caused more people to seek alternative forms of transportation, rather than driving their cars. Many people turned to public transportation, including buses and commuter trains.

Increased gas prices in 2008 and again in 2011 caused more people to seek alternative forms of transportation, rather than driving their cars. Many people turned to public transportation, including buses and commuter trains. © ROBERT GALBRAITH/REUTERS.

health problems as a result of exposure to petroleum vapors and groundwater contamination.

When gasoline burns, it releases carbon dioxide and water into the atmosphere. It also produces carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and unburned hydrocarbons, all of which can contribute to air pollution. Modern automobiles use catalytic converters to remove some of the pollutants from car emissions. Because of this improvement in car technology, automobiles made in 2010 produced much less pollution than cars made in 1970.

The economic impact of petroleum is enormous. In the early 2010s, the United States used around 20 million barrels of oil daily, which translates into over 300 billion gallons of oil a year. More than one-third of that petroleum powers cars and trucks. The country must import more than one-half of that amount from other countries.

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The United States has more oil reserves than it currently uses, but as of the early 21st century, it was less expensive to import oil than it was to extract some of the difficult-to-process reserves within the country. Foreign oil has become more expensive, however, especially as other countries increase their oil consumption. Some people support opening new U.S. sites to oil exploration and drilling partly because the oil industry can create many jobs.

A sudden change in oil prices can be disruptive to the United States and world economies. For example, oil prices rose steeply in the 1970s, creating an oil shock and inspiring car manufacturers to improve fuel economy. Oil prices were low and stable during the late 1980s and most of the 1990s. Large price spikes in 2008, and again in 2011, reflected increased demand for oil and other complicated economic factors.

Issues, challenges, and obstacles in the use of petroleum There is a limited supply of petroleum on Earth. Some experts believe that oil production will peak by 2020 and that current oil reserves will run out by 2050, if not earlier. Other experts disagree, believing that there are enough oil reserves to provide for the world's energy needs throughout the 21st century. Many areas in the Middle East and Russia are still unexplored.

In addition, oil companies can now drill in much deeper parts of the ocean than they previously could. Oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico now drill into wells below 10,000 feet (3,048 meters) of water. In the 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster, the oil rig was located in water about 4,000 feet (1,220 meters) deep. Improved drilling technology such as drills that can twist and turn underground allows oil companies to reach petroleum deposits miles away from rigs.

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OPEC

The Middle East holds a great deal of the world's petroleum. Middle Eastern nations and a few others have formed an organization called the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, or OPEC (OH-peck), which coordinates the prices that the individual countries charge for oil, to a large extent by setting production quotas for each member nation. Most OPEC-member countries are developing nations, which means they are working on making their countries more modern. Oil is extremely important for these countries because it brings in a huge amount of money. Furthermore, as long as petroleum is needed, the OPEC nations will have a certain degree of power over the rest of the world.

Pessimists argue that improved technology will only deplete oil reserves faster, especially as more of the world uses oil to power its vehicles and industry. Optimists believe that should not matter and that innovation will allow oil companies to keep furnishing the world with petroleum.

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Natural Gas

Along with coal and petroleum, natural gas is one of the three main fossil fuels in use in the early 2010s. People use natural gas for heating, electrical power, and other purposes. Natural gas produces much less pollution than petroleum, so some people believe it could be an ideal substitute for petroleum and coal in the future.

Natural gas is a gaseous hydrocarbon. It is colorless, odorless, and lighter than air. Natural gas is made up of 75 percent methane, 15 percent ethane, and small amounts of other hydrocarbons such as propane and butane.

The substance that oil companies sell as natural gas is almost pure methane, with the other gaseous components removed. When it burns, methane releases a large amount of energy, which makes it a useful fuel. Methane is sometimes called marsh gas because it forms in swamps as plants and animals decay underwater. Methane is naturally odorless, but gas companies add traces of smelly compounds to natural gas so that people will be able to smell gas leaks and avoid danger.

Origins of natural gas Natural gas formed from underwater plants and bacteria. These microscopic organisms fell to the bottom of the ocean when they died. Over the course of millions of years, they were crushed and heated by the pressure of layers of sand, dirt, and other organic matter that accumulated on top of them. The mineral components of the undersea mud gradually turned into shale, and some of the organic components turned into natural gas.

Natural gas can move around within porous reservoir rocks. It can also be trapped in underground reservoirs, or geologic traps. Natural gas is lighter than petroleum, so it usually sits on top of the petroleum in a reservoir. Natural gas sometimes seeps up through Earth's crust and appears on the surface.

Finding and extracting natural gas Natural gas is usually found with petroleum. When geologists (scientists who deal with the history of Earth and its life as recorded in rocks) search for underground oil, they find natural gas along with it. Sometimes there are pockets of natural gas in coal beds.

Geologists occasionally find reservoirs that contain mostly or all natural gas with no oil. The largest reserves of natural gas in the United

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States are in Texas, Alaska, Oklahoma, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Some experts believe that there is enough natural gas in the earth to last 200 years at present rates of consumption, although much of this gas may be difficult to reach.

When they first began drilling for oil, people believed natural gas was an unpleasant by-product. They would burn the natural gas away before removing the oil from the ground. Now oil companies know that natural gas is a valuable commodity in its own right, and they extract it carefully. The process of drilling for natural gas is similar to that of drilling for petroleum. In many cases natural gas comes out of wells that have already been dug to extract oil. Oil companies also drill wells to extract natural gas by itself.

There are three main kinds of natural gas wells:

  • Gas wells, which are dug into a reservoir of relatively pure natural gas
  • Oil wells, which are dug for extracting oil but also extract any natural gas that happens to be in the reservoir
  • Condensate wells, which are dug into reservoirs that contain natural gas and a liquid hydrocarbon mixture called condensate but contain no crude oil.

Natural gas that comes from oil wells is sometimes called associated gas. Natural gas from gas wells and condensate wells is called non-associated gas because it is extracted on its own and not as a by-product of oil drilling.

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Make Your Own Methane

Although most of the world's methane is very old, it is possible to make new methane through chemical reactions. The Sabatier process combines hydrogen and carbon dioxide with a nickel catalyst and high temperatures to synthesize methane and water. This method of producing methane could be used to generate fuel in outer space to power spacecraft.

One common natural process also results in large amounts of methane: When cattle digest food, they produce methane that they emit into the atmosphere. In 2010, the world's domestic cattle were responsible for over a third of all methane emissions directly related to human activities (domestic cattle are part of agriculture). Methane released into the atmosphere becomes a powerful greenhouse gas—it is some 23 times more potent than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas.

Making natural gas useful The natural gas that consumers use is almost pure methane. The natural gas that comes out of a well is not pure and may contain a mixture of hydrocarbons and gases, including methane, ethane, propane, and butane. It also may contain small amounts of oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide, but methane is by far the largest component.

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An oil or gas company processing natural gas separates the gases into individual components, dividing them into pure methane, pure propane, pure butane, and so on. The liquid forms of the non-methane gas components, such as propane and butane, are called natural gas liquids, or NGLs, and sometimes are called liquid petroleum gas, or LPG. All of these products can be sold individually, so it is cost-effective to separate them.

The first step in processing is to remove any oil mixed with the gas. Natural gas that comes out of an oil well is separated from petroleum at the well. Sometimes the gas is dissolved in the oil, like the carbonation in a soft drink, and through the force of gravity the gas bubbles come out of the oil. In other cases the oil workers use a separator that applies heat and pressure to the mixed oil and gas to make them separate. The workers must also remove any water from the natural gas, using heat, pressure, or chemicals. They then remove NGLs using similar techniques.

Once they have been removed from natural gas, NGLs must be separated from one another. This is done through a process called fractionation, which involves boiling the NGLs until each one has evaporated. A similar process is used to refine petroleum. The different NGLs have different boiling points. As the NGLs boil, the different hydrocarbons evaporate and can be captured.

Some natural gas comes out of the ground with large amounts of sulfur in it. It is called sour gas because the sulfur makes the gas smell like rotten eggs. The gas company must remove the sulfur before selling the gas because sulfur in significant amounts is poisonous for humans to breathe and because it corrodes metal. The companies can sell the sulfur for industrial uses once it is separated out.

Sometimes a processing plant turns natural gas into liquid before transporting it. Liquid natural gas is one six-hundredth the volume of natural gas in gas form. Liquefying it makes it possible to store and transport natural gas around the world.

Once it has been refined and liquefied, natural gas can be transported and sold. The most common way to transport natural gas is through pipelines, which crisscross the United States and many other countries. If the gas is not sold right away, the gas company must store it. Natural gas is usually stored underground in formations such as empty gas reservoirs; in aquifers, or underground rock formations that hold water; and in salt caverns.

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Current and potential uses of natural gas People have known about natural gas for thousands of years. The eternal flames in ancient temples may have been fueled by natural gas. In the early 19th century, people began using natural gas as a light source. However, as soon as oil was discovered in the 1860s and electricity became widespread, people abandoned natural gas except for limited use in cooking and heating.

Even so, the natural gas industry built the first large natural gas pipeline in 1891 and a large network of pipelines in the 1920s. Gas companies built more pipelines between 1945 and 1970, which made it convenient to use natural gas for heating homes and for use in appliances.

Natural gas has become more appealing as a fuel in recent years. Some uses are:

  • Powering heaters and air conditioners. Because so many homes and businesses use gas heat, natural gas consumption typically is much higher in the winter than in the summer.
  • Running appliances such as water heaters, stoves, washers and dryers, fireplaces, and outdoor lights.
  • Serving as an ingredient in plastics, fertilizer, antifreeze, and fabric.
  • Producing methanol, butane, ethane, and propane, which can be used in industry and as fuel.
  • Dehumidifying, or drying the air in, factories that make products that can be damaged by moisture.

Scientists are considering the use of natural gas in applications such as the following:

  • Powering natural gas-fueled vehicles, which produce far fewer emissions than vehicles powered by gasoline.
  • Powering fuel cells in which hydrogen is used to produce electricity with few emissions.
  • Reburning, or adding natural gas to coal- or oil-fired boilers to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.
  • Cogeneration, a technology for generating electricity as it burns fuel, requiring less total fuel and producing fewer emissions.
  • Combined cycle generation, a technology that captures the heat generated in producing electricity and uses it to create more electricity. Combined cycle generation units powered by natural gas are much more efficient than those powered by petroleum or coal.
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Scientists are especially interested in technologies that combine natural gas with other fossil fuels to increase efficiency and reduce emissions. Natural gas is seen as a good source of fuel for the future. As a result, scientists are constantly inventing new ways to use it.

Benefits of natural gas Natural gas has advantages over petroleum and coal. It burns cleanly, producing no by-products except for carbon dioxide and water, so it does not cause the same degree of air pollution as the other fossil fuels. It does not produce the sludge that results from coal-burning emissions.

Natural gas can take the place of gasoline as a fuel for cars, trucks, and buses. Most natural gas vehicles are powered by compressed natural gas (CNG). The technology used to pump CNG into a car is almost identical to the process of fueling a gasoline-powered car. Some vehicles can use either gasoline or CNG. Natural gas cars have no trouble meeting environmental standards because of their low emissions. Natural gas is very safe for the environment; it does not pollute groundwater.

For many years natural gas has been cheaper than gasoline. Many cities have converted their buses, taxis, construction vehicles, garbage trucks, and public works vehicles to natural gas. These organizations are well suited to use natural gas as fuel because their vehicles do not travel


A natural gas control and conditioning station is shown.

A natural gas control and conditioning station is shown. © OLEG-F/SHUTTERSTOCK.COM.

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long distances. Also, these entities can afford the cost of converting the vehicles in the first place.

Drawbacks of natural gas Natural gas vehicles have not become widespread because standard vehicles must be modified for natural gas use and that requires an investment on the part of the consumer or business. Also, there are very few natural gas refueling stations. Plus, the vehicles cannot travel long distances without refueling. Natural gas historically was hard to transport and store, but modern technology has greatly lessened that difficulty.

Impact of natural gas Natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel. The burning of natural gas releases no ash and produces low levels of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and other hydrocarbons and very small amounts of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Vehicles powered by natural gas emit 90 percent less carbon monoxide and 25 percent less carbon dioxide than gasoline-powered vehicles.

Natural gas is becoming an increasingly common fuel for electrical power plants and in industry. Electrical power plants fueled by natural gas produce far fewer emissions than coal-powered plants. Burning natural gas does not contribute significantly to the formation of smog.

Natural gas does contribute to some environmental problems. Burning natural gas emits carbon dioxide, which is considered a greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change, particularly global warming. However, natural gas produces 30 percent less carbon dioxide than burning petroleum and 45 percent less carbon dioxide than burning coal to produce the same amount of heat energy, so it is still preferable to either of those.

The development of LNG technology means that natural gas is easier and less expensive to store and to transport, and liquefaction techniques (turning gas into a liquid) improve every year. Petroleum engineers are constantly getting better at finding and extracting natural gas from the ground.

Natural gas may change the way people use power in their daily lives. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, in 2009 natural gas supplied about a quarter of the energy needs of the United States. The increased use of fracturing rock—referred to commonly as “fracking”—greatly increased the estimated quantity of natural gas reserves in the

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United States by the early 2010s. As a result of the greater use of the fraking recovery technique, some analysts have argued that the United States could end its dependence on foreign energy if natural gas was more widely used by industry and consumers.

Moreover, if power plants switch to the use of natural gas during summer when demand for natural gas is lowest and smog is highest, they could emit fewer pollutants and improve air quality. Using natural gas instead of other fossil fuels could reduce acid rain and particulate emissions. As people become concerned about emissions and fuel economy, they may want vehicles powered by natural gas. The vehicles will then become more widely available, less expensive, and easier to refuel.

Issues, challenges, and obstacles in the use of natural gas Natural gas technology is not widespread in the transportation sector. The fuel has many possible applications, but car manufacturers will have to decide that it is cost-effective for them to build natural gas vehicles before they do so on a large scale. Consumers will not buy natural gas vehicles until they are convinced that it will be convenient, safe, and inexpensive for them to buy natural gas as fuel.

Coal

In 2010, coal supplied about 30 percent of the world's energy needs, second only to oil. In that same year, coal supplied a little over a fifth of the energy used in the United States.

Coal is a solid hydrocarbon made primarily of carbon and hydrogen with small amounts of other elements such as sulfur and nitrogen. Coal looks like black rock, and it leaves black dust on things that it touches.

Origins of coal Millions of years ago, Earth was covered with swamps full of giant trees and other plants. When they died, these trees fell into the swampy water and were gradually covered by other plants and soil. All living things, including plants and animals, are composed mainly of carbon. Over millions of years, the carbon in the swamp plants was compressed and heated. This caused it to rot, exactly the way fruit and vegetables rot if kept too long. This rotting produced methane gas, also known as swamp gas.

Over several thousand years, the weight of the upper layers compacted the lower layers into a substance called peat. Peat is the first step

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on the way to the formation of coal and other fuels. People can use peat as fuel simply by cutting chunks of it out of the ground and burning them. Ireland was once covered with peat, which was the main source of fuel there for years. The Great Dismal Swamp in North Carolina and Virginia contains almost one billion tons of peat.

As the peat continued to be compacted by new layers of dead plants, it became hotter as it was being pushed closer to the heat inside the earth. The heat and pressure gradually turned it into coal. Most of Earth's coal was formed during one of two periods: the Carboniferous (360 million–290 million years ago) or the Tertiary (65 million–1.6 million years ago).

Finding coal There are large reserves of coal all over the world. According to the World Energy Council, in 2010 the United States possessed around a quarter of the world's coal reserves. There are also large reserves of coal in China, India, and central Asia.

In the United States, most coal comes from mines in Montana, North Dakota, Wyoming, Alaska, Illinois, and Colorado. There are also coal deposits in the Appalachian area, especially in West Virginia and Pennsylvania. In 2009, U.S. mines produced over one billion tons of coal.

Getting coal out of the ground Coal is extracted from the earth through mining techniques that vary depending on where the coal is located. If


Thin blocks of cut peat are shown in piles in rural Ireland.

Thin blocks of cut peat are shown in piles in rural Ireland. © ANTHONY HALL/SHUTTERSTOCK.COM.

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a coal seam (or deposit) is deep below the surface of Earth, miners use subsurface mining. They dig vertical tunnels into the ground to reach the seam and then dig horizontal tunnels at the level of the seam. The miners ride elevators down to the seam, dig out the coal, and transport it back up to the surface. To prevent the earth from collapsing, miners leave pillars of coal standing to hold up the tunnel roof. Despite this precaution, coal mines sometimes collapse, killing miners trapped inside.

Surface mining, or strip mining, is a process of taking coal off the surface of Earth without going underground. Miners use giant shovels to remove dirt, called overburden, from the coal seam and then use explosives to blast the coal out of the rock. Strip mining is much safer than subsurface mining, but it leaves huge scars on the land and can contribute to water pollution.


This mining test cut shows seams of coal (black deposits) deep below the surface of the earth.

This mining test cut shows seams of coal (black deposits) deep below the surface of the earth. © LEE PRINCE/SHUTTERSTOCK.COM.

Making coal useful Coal comes out of the ground in chunks up to 3 or 4 feet (0.9–1.2 meters) across, and coal processors crush it into chunks about the size of a person's fist. These chunks of coal then go through a screen that separates out the smallest pieces. Coal plants sometimes clean coal by setting it, which washes out the heavier particles of stone. The plant may then dry the coal to make it lighter and help it burn better. Once processing is complete, coal is transported to buyers using trains, barges (flat cargo-carrying boats), and trucks.

Coal comes in several types, depending on how pure the carbon is, which also corresponds to how old the coal is. Coal is rated by heat value (how much heat it can produce when it burns). The purer the carbon is, the higher the heat value. Heat value is measured in British thermal units, or Btu, per pound. A Btu is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.

  • Anthracite (AN-thruh-syte) contains between 86 and 98 percent pure carbon and has a heat value of 13,500 to 15,600 Btu per pound.
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  • Bituminous (bye-TOO-muh-nuhs) coal contains between 60 and 86 percent pure carbon and has a heat value of 10,500 to 15,500 Btu per pound.
  • Lignite (LIG-night), sometimes called brown coal, has the lowest carbon content of the various types of coal at between 25 and 35 percent pure carbon, with a heat value of 4,000 to 8,300 Btu per pound.
  • Subbituminous (sub-bye-TOO-muh-nuhs) coal contains between 35 and 45 percent pure carbon and has a heat value of 8,300 to 13,000 Btu per pound.

Current and potential uses of coal Coal became a popular fuel in England in the 19th century because the country sits on top of huge coal deposits. Coal was more plentiful than wood, which meant it was less expensive. The availability of coal along with inventions such as the steam engine allowed England to become the first truly industrialized nation.

During the 19th century and in the early part of the 20th century, many people had coal-burning stoves in their homes. This system of heating had many drawbacks. It was messy, and people had to make sure they did not run out of coal. By the late 20th century, coal was no longer a common fuel for heating homes in most developed nations. As individual homeowners used less coal, industry used more.

However, with volatility in natural gas and oil fuel prices during the early 2000s, the number of people in the United States using coal for heating rebounded a bit. But even then, residential heating with coal represented only a fraction of 1 percent of all home heating systems in the United States. By contrast, many developing nations, such as China, still rely on coal for much of their residential heating and cooking. Because of increased air pollution, the burning of coal in homes has been banned in most metropolitan areas of China, but it is still allowed in rural areas where millions of households burn coal in cooking stoves and furnaces.

Between 1940 and 1980, the amount of coal used by electrical power plants doubled every year. Coal also powers factories that make paper, iron, steel, ceramics, and cement. The U.S. Department of Energy reported that in 2010 around one-half of the electrical power plants in the United States were powered by coal.

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Benefits and drawbacks of coal Coal burns hotter and more efficiently than wood, and in many places it is more readily available. There is a great deal of coal in the world, so supplies are not likely to run out in the near future.

One of the drawbacks of using coal is that it has to be dug out. All methods of mining coal have problems associated with them. Coal is also very dirty. Coal dust coats anything it falls on, from buildings to people. Gases released by burning coal are big contributors to air pollution.

Environmental impact of coal Coal is not environmentally friendly. It produces large amounts of pollution, which may contribute to acid rain and global warming. Mining it is often damaging to the environment, and transporting it is destructive as well. Most coal is moved around on trains, which are powered by pollution-causing diesel fuel.

Air pollution The difficulty with burning coal is that it rarely produces only carbon dioxide, water, and energy. If the temperature is not high enough or if not enough oxygen is available to keep the fire burning high, the coal is not completely burned. When that happens, the coal releases other substances into the air. These substances include:

  • Carbon monoxide, which is toxic to humans and animals.
  • Soot, which is pure carbon dust and can turn buildings, trees, and animals black. (The British invented glass-covered bookcases in the 1800s so their books would not get covered with soot.)
  • Sulfur dioxide, sulfur trioxide, and nitrogen oxides, which become part of acid rain.
  • Lead, arsenic, barium, and other dangerous compounds that are in coal ash, which can float in the air or stay where the coal was burned and cause people to become ill.

In 2008, electrical power plants in the United States were responsible for about two-thirds of the nation's sulfur dioxide emissions, 40 percent of carbon dioxide emissions, nearly three-quarters of airborne mercury emissions, and nearly a fifth of nitrogen oxide emissions. And coal-fired power plants accounted for around 95 percent of all these emissions.

New power plants may be less polluting than older ones, but most power plants operating in the United States in the early 2010s still used older technology. Under the Clean Air Act, older plants were prevented

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from expanding in the hope that they would gradually close down and be replaced by modern facilities.

Regardless of what developed countries of the 21st century do about emissions, China and other developing nations are using outdated technology that releases huge amounts of pollution. According to the World Coal Association, in 2010 China produced and consumed far more coal than any other nation in the world. The United States ranked number two in both production and consumption of coal. As the developing nations move toward resembling the developed world technologically, vast amounts of pollution travel around the world and end up in countries elsewhere.

Coal mining Surface coal mining can leave huge holes in the land and even destroy entire mountains. Water that flows over the mine site can flush pollutants into streams and rivers. Underground coal mining leaves behind tunnels in the ground, which can collapse suddenly. In the old days of mining, abandoned surface mines would turn into forbidding deserts, full of old rusted equipment.

Modern coal mining is very different, at least in the industrialized world. Due to several decades of pressure from consumers and environmental groups and new environmental laws, 21st century coal mining companies are much more careful about restoring the landscape after they take the coal from it. Miners save the topsoil and store local plants in greenhouses. Mining companies hire biologists, botanists (scientists who study plants), and fisheries experts to restore the environment as it was before mining began. Before laws required it, no mining company spent the money to avoid environmental harm.

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Eternal Coal Fires

Sometimes the coal inside a mine will catch on fire by accident. It can be nearly impossible to put out this kind of fire; drilling into the mine only adds oxygen to fuel the flames. A coal deposit in Tajikistan has supposedly been burning underground since 330 BCE when Alexander the Great visited the area. A network of coal mines in Centralia, Pennsylvania, caught fire in 1962 and was still burning in 2011. Someone had burned trash in an abandoned coal pit, and the coal vein ignited. The town had to be evacuated in the 1980s (although the 2010 U.S. census reported that a handful of townspeople defiantly remained against government orders).

Hundreds of coal mines are burning in the United States, but many more are burning in China and India, where mining development is proceeding too rapidly to control. In addition, coal mining produces tailings (coal mining wastes) that are put in large piles above ground. The tailings can also catch fire and burn for decades.

Economic impact of coal Coal started the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the late 18th century. Without coal, there would have been no factories, no steel, no trains, no steamships, and no electric lights.

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In the early 21st century, coal is still a huge business. Coal mines bring in a great deal of money. In areas that have large coal deposits, most of the local population may be employed by the coal industry. The closing of a coal mine can harm a community by putting many townspeople out of work.

Societal impact of coal Coal mining was one of the first industries to attract the attention of socially conscious lawmakers, who passed laws protecting workers. Coal mining was also one of the first industries in which workers organized, leading to the development of trade unions.

Although mining techniques in the United States are much better than they were in the 19th century, coal miners still face more daily risks than most workers. Some health problems are much more common in coal miners than in other groups of people. Aside from the danger of being killed in a mine collapse, coal miners are still at risk of life-threatening lung diseases. Among those diseases is pneumoconiosis, also referred to as “black lung disease.”

People who live in coal mining regions depend on the coal industry for their income and do not want to see coal mining disappear. At the same time, they would like to see coal mining become safer and less destructive.

Issues, challenges, and obstacles in the use of coal The demand for coal is expected to triple in the 21st century. Coal is the only fossil fuel that is likely to be in large supply in the year 2100, so people may become even more dependent on it. The U.S. Congress has encouraged coal producers to clean up coal technology since 1970. Scientists are trying to invent ways to use coal for fuel without causing pollution. These methods are called clean coal technologies and include the following:

  • Coal gasification, by which coal is turned into gas that can be used for fuel, leaving the dangerous solid components in the mine
  • Coal liquefaction, by which coal is turned into a petroleum-like liquid that can be used to power motor vehicles
  • Coal pulverization, by which coal is broken into tiny particles before it is burned
  • Use of hydrosizers, which are machines that use water to extract (take out or remove) the usable coal from mining waste to increase the amount of coal that can be retrieved from a mine
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  • Use of scrubbers and other devices to clean coal before, during, and after combustion to reduce the amount of pollution released into the atmosphere
  • Use of bacteria to separate pollutants from organic components in coal so that the sulfur and other pollutants can be removed before burning
  • Fluidized bed technology, which burns coal at a lower temperature or adds elements to the furnaces in coal plants to remove pollutants before they burn.
Full Text: 

Coal Gasification

Coal gasification is a process that converts coal to a gas that can be used as fuel. The main advantage of gasification is that it can remove pollutants from coal before the coal is burned, so the harmful substances are not released into the air. Coal gasification is a clean coal technology.

Coal gasification is done in stages. The first step is to crush and dry the coal. The crushed coal is placed in a boiler, where it is heated with air and steam. This heat causes chemical reactions that release a mix of gases that can then be used as fuel. The solid waste, or ash, remains in the boiler, where it can be collected and thrown away. Dangerous gases such as carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide are removed in scrubbers like the ones in smokestacks at coal plants.

Gasification has been around for at least 100 years. It was widely piped and used as a fuel in Britain and many other European countries by 1900. Although it was used in other countries, in the United States it was not used during the first half of the century because petroleum and natural gas were inexpensive and plentiful. In the 1970s utility companies began considering gasification as a way to obey stricter environ-mental laws. Many people hope that coal gasification will be a valuable technology in the 21st century.

Current and potential uses of coal gasification Coal gasification produces the following kinds of gases that can be used as fuel:

  • Methane, which can be used as a substitute for natural gas
  • Chemical synthesis gas consisting of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which is used in the chemical industry to produce other chemicals, such as ammonia and methyl alcohol
  • Medium-Btu gas, which is also made of carbon monoxide and hydrogen and used by utilities and industrial plants.
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Illustration showing coal gasification, with the elements that are used to give power to the electric generators.

Illustration showing coal gasification, with the elements that are used to give power to the electric generators. CENGAGE LEARNING.

Benefits and drawbacks of coal gasification Plants and factories that run on coal gasification technology have much lower emissions than traditional coal-burning plants, and their solid wastes are not hazardous. The waste products themselves can be useful. The sulfur dioxide scrubbers produce pure sulfur that can be used in other processes, and some scientists believe the ash can be used to build roads and buildings. Some people believe it may even be possible to use sewage or hazardous wastes to power the coal gasification boilers.

The greatest problem with coal gasification is cost. Using coal gasification technology to provide power to an industrial plant costs three times as much as using natural gas. Supporters of the technology hope that researchers will develop ways to make gasification less expensive. Coal gasification requires vast amounts of water, which creates a problem. For gasification to be cost-effective, the plants must be built near coal mines so

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that the coal does not have to travel far, and most coal mines in the United States are in western states, where water is limited and expensive.

Impact of coal gasification On an environmental level, gasification has the potential to make coal a much less polluting fossil fuel. It will not have any impact on the environmental destruction caused by coal mining itself. However, coal mining is now much less destructive than it once was.

Economically, coal gasification is much less efficient than burning coal directly; 30 to 40 percent of coal's energy is lost during the process of converting it to gas. Gasification would hardly be worth the cost of production if it were not for the environmental benefits it offers.

Issues, challenges, and obstacles in the use of coal gasification Scientists in Europe and the United States have been working to improve coal gasification techniques. They have been experimenting with using chemicals called catalysts to release the gases from coal. Using catalysts would allow gasification to occur at a lower temperature, which would make the process less expensive.

Some scientists believe that the answer is to carry out gasification inside coal mines. Miners could pipe up the useful gases and leave the solid wastes underground. This idea is attractive because a large portion of coal reserves are nearly impossible to remove by the usual methods, and underground gasification would make those reserves available.

Liquefied Petroleum Gas: Propane and Butane

Liquefied petroleum gas, or LPG, is petroleum gas that can easily be turned into a liquid at ordinary temperatures simply through the application of pressure. The main types of LPG are propane and butane. Propane is the most common LPG and is usually what people mean when they refer to LPGs. Propane and butane are both colorless, flammable gases that belong to the category of hydrocarbons called paraffins or alkanes. Unprocessed natural gas contains both propane and butane, which are removed during the purifying process. Petroleum refining also creates LPGs.

The first step in processing LPG is to remove any oil that might be mixed with the gas. Sometimes the natural gas is dissolved in oil, and the gas bubbles will come out of the oil through the force of gravity. In other cases, oil workers use a separator that applies heat and pressure to the mixed oil and gas to make them separate.

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Once the methane has been removed from the natural gas, the workers separate the remaining components, which include propane, butane, and ethane in a liquid form. The process is called fractionation, which basically involves boiling until each one of the gases has evaporated. The different gases have different boiling points. As each different boiling point is reached, the gases evaporate and can be captured separately. Because LPGs are naturally odorless, oil companies often add a substance called ethanethiol (eth-THAN-ee-thee-all) to it so people can smell the gas if it leaks. Ethanethiol smells like rotten eggs.

Oil companies usually store large amounts of LPGs in underground salt domes and pressurized empty mines near gas production facilities and pipeline hubs. These reservoirs are tied directly to pipelines so the LPGs can be delivered rapidly. LPG merchants store the gas in large pressurized above-ground tanks. Consumers then store LPGs in smaller above-ground tanks at their homes or businesses.

Most LPGs in the United States are transported through a network of about 70,000 miles (113,000 kilometers) of pipelines. Most of these pipelines are concentrated along the Gulf Coast and in the Midwest. The Midwest also receives LPGs from two pipelines running from Canada. The East Coast of the United States has only two pipelines serving the area. LPGs can be delivered by trucks, trains, barges, and ocean tankers.


A tanker containing LPG makes its way to a petrochemical plant.

A tanker containing LPG makes its way to a petrochemical plant. © ATILAY/SHUTTERSTOCK.COM.

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The United States imports about 10 percent of its total LPG supply from other countries, including Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Venezuela, Norway, and the United Kingdom.

Current and potential uses of LPG LPGs are useful as substitutes for natural gas for purposes such as powering stoves, furnaces, and water heaters. LPGs, often sold as or called propane, can be used in many ways, including:

  • As a fuel for internal combustion engines, such as the ones in cars and buses
  • To power home appliances, such as hot water heaters, heat pumps, space heaters, fireplaces, stoves, and clothes dryers
  • As a fuel for devices such as forklifts
  • For industrial purposes such as soldering, cutting, heat treating, and space heating
  • To power campers and recreational vehicles
  • As a solvent and refrigerant in the petroleum industry
  • As a propellant in aerosol sprays, replacing CFCs (chloro-fluorocarbons)
  • For agricultural purposes such as weed control or crop drying, and as fuel for irrigation pumps and farm equipment.

Butane by itself is used in cigarette lighters and portable stoves, such as the stoves people take camping. Petroleum refineries leave some butane in gasoline to make it easier to start engines since butane ignites quickly.

Ethane, which is another kind of LPG, is used as a starting material in the production of ethylene and acetylene, which are used as fuel in welding. It is possible to power automobiles and other vehicles with LPG. Some people have converted their cars to burn LPG instead of gasoline.

Homeowners and private consumers use about 45 percent of the LPGs sold in the United States. Most of this LPG, that is, propane for heat and other home purposes, is used during the winter. The petrochemical industry uses about 38 percent of the LPGs in the manufacture of plastics. Farms and factories use another 7 percent each. Farms use the most LPGs in the fall, but factories use a steady amount year-round. Transportation accounts for only 3 percent.

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One of the uses of butane is in portable stoves, such as those people use when they are camping.

One of the uses of butane is in portable stoves, such as those people use when they are camping. © ANDREAS G. KARELIAS/SHUTTERSTOCK.COM.

Benefits of LPG LPG is a good fuel for internal combustion engines. LPG is no more dangerous than gasoline when contained in a fuel tank. Because LPG becomes liquid easily, it is possible to put it in pressurized tanks for storage and transport. People can keep tanks of LPG in their yards, and tanker trucks can deliver it to rural areas that are not served by natural gas companies.

Propane is an excellent fuel for automobiles and is becoming one of the most popular alternative fuels. Propane vehicles produce between 30 and 90 percent less carbon monoxide and 50 percent fewer smog-producing pollutants than gasoline-powered vehicles. In 2008 there were roughly 300,000 propane-powered vehicles in the United States, and about 10 million around the world. These vehicles include cars, vans, pickup trucks, buses, and delivery trucks. The U.S. Department of Energy has encouraged consumers to consider using propane-powered vehicles.

In many ways propane is superior to electricity and to other fuels. It does not produce nearly as much pollution as gasoline or coal. Propane furnaces are more efficient at heating; they release fewer air pollutants than heaters powered by electricity or fuel oil. Propane fireplaces are cheaper and less polluting than wood-burning fireplaces, and they can be turned on and off with a switch. Many professional cooks prefer propane stoves to electric stoves because they produce heat instantly and are easier to control. Moreover, propane appliances will still work during power outages, unlike electric appliances.

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The petrochemical industry uses LPG in the manufacture of various products.

The petrochemical industry uses LPG in the manufacture of various products. © BRUCE RAYNOR/SHUTTERSTOCK.COM.

Drawbacks of LPG LPG is more expensive to produce than gasoline. It is not widely available, so it can be difficult to refuel a car that runs on LPG, although there were around 2,500 filling stations in the United States in 2008. It can be difficult to find an LPG-powered vehicle because not many are made. Propane-powered vehicles usually have a slightly lower driving range than gasoline-powered vehicles because the energy content of propane is lower than that of gasoline.

LPG is highly explosive. It is important to maintain propane appliances in good condition and have them inspected regularly. Consumers should find out where gas lines run under their yards so they can avoid striking them with shovels or other hard metal objects. Anyone who smells a propane leak should immediately evacuate the building and call the fire department. No one should flip light switches, turn on other electrical appliances, or use the telephone if near a propane leak.

Impact of LPG LPG emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter are very low. LPG releases almost no emissions through evaporation, as gasoline and diesel fuel do. Engines that run on LPG are quieter than those that run on gasoline. LPGs do not cause carbon to accumulate inside machinery.

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Economically, because propane and LPGs are produced as a byproduct of natural gas and petroleum refining, their prices are directly tied to petroleum and natural gas prices. According to the U.S. Energy Information Agency, in 2009 a barrel of refined oil (42 gallons) yielded on average about 1.7 gallons of LPGs (as compared to a little over 19 gallons of gasoline).

Prices for LPGs fluctuate (go up and down) according to seasonal demand. They are usually most expensive in winter, when people are using them for heat. Prices also vary by distance from the source, so that consumers who live far away from sources of LPGs often pay more for them than consumers who live close by. Automobile manufacturers do not build LPG-burning cars because LPG is more expensive than gasoline.

On a societal level, LPG is invaluable to people in rural areas because it is a source of power that can be transported to areas not otherwise served by natural gas and electricity.

Issues, challenges, and obstacles in the use of LPG Since LPG comes from the production of petroleum and natural gas, when those supplies run out, so will LPG. In the early 21st century, many organizations are trying to encourage consumers to use more propane and LPGs as fuel for their homes or vehicles. Interest in LPGs has increased somewhat as people become concerned about the environment. In order for more people to use LPGs as fuel for transportation, companies will have to make it easier to refuel the vehicles and less expensive to buy them.

Methanol

Methanol is a kind of alcohol that can be used as fuel. It is also called methyl alcohol and is used primarily in industry and in race cars. Some people hope it can be used to power fuel cells.

Methanol is a clear, colorless liquid with a distinctive odor. Methanol was once called wood alcohol because people made it by burning wood and condensing the vapors that emerged. The ancient Egyptians created methanol in this way and used it to embalm mummies. Robert Boyle (1627–1691) isolated methanol in the 1660s, and Pierre Eugène Marcelin Berthelot synthesized it in about 1860. In the 21st century, methanol usually is produced from natural gas. It may be possible to use coal or wood to produce methanol in order to avoid using natural gas resources.

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This red and white radio-controlled aircraft has a methanol engine.

This red and white radio-controlled aircraft has a methanol engine. © DREAMFRAMER/SHUTTERSTOCK.COM.

Current and potential uses of methanol Methanol has several uses. Chemists use it to manufacture plastics and formaldehyde, which is used to preserve organic matter. It is useful as a solvent and as antifreeze. Methanol also can be used to power fuel cells, such as those in cellular telephones or laptop computers, and to manufacture the fuel additive MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether).

Automakers have experimented with using methanol as a fuel for cars, either alone or mixed with gasoline. A mix of 85 percent methanol and 15 percent unleaded regular gasoline (called M85) emits only half the pollutants of gasoline alone. Methanol is a popular fuel for race cars largely because methanol fires can be put out with water, which makes it safer than gasoline.

Benefits and drawbacks of methanol When used as an automobile fuel, methanol produces fewer emissions and has better performance than gasoline. It is also less flammable. Methanol can be made from a variety of substances, including natural gas, coal, and wood. Use of methanol could reduce dependence on petroleum. Methanol can easily be made into hydrogen so it has potential as a fuel source for hydrogen fuel cells.

However, methanol has several drawbacks as a fuel. The flame produced by burning methanol is colorless and almost invisible, which makes it dangerous for people working near it. Methanol vapors are poisonous and can burn the skin. People who handle methanol without

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adequate protection can absorb it through their skin or lungs and quickly become ill, because methanol is highly poisonous.

Methanol is also more expensive to produce than gasoline, which makes methanol-gasoline mixes more expensive than plain gasoline. Anyone who owns a methanol-powered vehicle has a hard time finding a place to refuel. Automobile manufacturers stopped producing methanol-powered vehicles in 1998, switching their attention to ethanol instead.

Impact of methanol Methanol produces fewer greenhouse gases than gasoline. Vehicles powered with mixed gasoline and methanol emit just one-half the smog-forming pollutants that a comparable gasoline-powered vehicle emits. The formaldehyde it produces when it burns, however, is quite poisonous.

Many industries use methanol in their daily business. Because most methanol is made from natural gas, changes in natural gas prices affect methanol prices. Some factories that produce methanol stop production if natural gas prices go too high, a practice that can cause methanol shortages.

Issues, challenges, and obstacles in the use of methanol Many people believe methanol has potential as a fuel. Federal and state governments have passed laws encouraging the development of alternative fuels such as methanol. The California Energy Commission has encouraged car manufacturers to experiment with methanol since 1978. However, 25 years of experimenting did little to increase public support for using methanol as a fuel. By the early 2010s, most car manufacturers had abandoned methanol research.

Japanese cellular telephone manufacturers have been developing fuel cells powered by methanol. The main drawback to this technology is the need to carry flammable methanol in public places, such as on airplanes. Researchers hope that this technology will have a wider application in the near future.

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Do Not Drink the Methanol

The alcohol people drink in beer, wine, and whiskey is ethyl alcohol, or ethanol. Methanol, although it is a type of alcohol, is not something that anyone would want to drink. Drinking even a small amount can cause blindness. Drinking a larger amount can kill a person.

Methyl Tertiary-butyl Ether (MTBE)

Methyl tertiary-butyl ether, or MTBE, is a substance added to gasoline to make it burn more completely and produce fewer polluting emissions.

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It has been added to gasoline in the United States since the late 1970s. In the 1990s, communities discovered that MTBE was getting into their water supplies, which led to a movement to eliminate MTBE use.

MTBE is a chemical compound made of methanol and isobutylene. At room temperature, MTBE is a colorless liquid that dissolves easily in water. It is volatile (or unstable) and flammable. It has a strong odor, and small amounts of it can make water taste bad. MTBE is an oxygenate, which is a substance that raises the oxygen content of another substance. MTBE is used to raise the oxygen content of gasoline so that it burns more cleanly within engines.

Current and potential uses of MTBE MTBE, used as a fuel additive, increases the octane level of gasoline and reduces emissions of carbon monoxide and pollutants that form ozone. The U.S. Clean Air Act was passed in 1963 and updated in 1970 and 1990, requiring people in certain areas to use oxygenated gasoline. MTBE is one of the least expensive oxygenates, so most oil companies chose it as a fuel additive. Gasoline with oxygenates added to it is sometimes called reformulated gasoline, or RFG.

At the end of the 20th century, about 30 percent of the gasoline sold in the United States was RFG, and MTBE was the oxygenate most commonly mixed into it. MTBE is the primary oxygenate because it is relatively inexpensive.

Benefits and drawbacks of MTBE MTBE blends easily with gasoline, and it can be shipped through existing pipelines. Gasoline with MTBE mixed into it burns more cleanly than plain gasoline, reducing tailpipe emissions. This has resulted in an improvement in air quality. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimated that the addition of MTBE to gasoline reduces toxic chemical emissions by 24 million tons a year and smog-forming pollutants by 105 million tons.

MTBE dissolves easily in water, which can pose a hazard. When gasoline tanks or pipelines leak above or below the ground, the MTBE can dissolve in groundwater and travel to water supplies. Urban runoff, rain, motorboats and jet skis, and car crashes can all result in gasoline and MTBE getting into groundwater. Gasoline tends to stick to soil so it does not travel very far when it is spilled, but MTBE moves freely with water and can easily contaminate water supplies. It does not break down in the environment, so it can stay in groundwater for years.

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Some people fear that MTBE causes health problems. Research animals exposed to large amounts of MTBE have developed cancer and other health problems. So far researchers do not believe that MTBE in gasoline poses any major health risks to humans. Researchers do, however, believe MTBE may cause cancer in people who drink water contaminated with large amounts of it.

Impact of MTBE The use of MTBE in gasoline has improved air quality in the United States since 1995. But MTBE has found its way into the groundwater in some areas. This happens easily when gasoline leaks out of storage containers or is spilled during transport. Rain can carry MTBE into shallow groundwater, and it can then get into deeper water supplies. MTBE can make water undrinkable. Some states have set limits on the amount of MTBE allowed in drinking water. Most public water systems must monitor their water supplies for the presence of MTBE.

Although MTBE can spread through the ground and water very easily, it does not break down easily. Getting MTBE out of water is difficult. Once it has polluted a water source, MTBE can be very hard to clean up. Many public water supplies have been found to be contaminated with MTBE in California alone.

On an economic level, MTBE is one of the least expensive and most convenient fuel additives. A huge amount of MTBE is produced in the United States. Production of MTBE is very profitable, but cleaning MTBE out of the U.S. water supply is very expensive. MTBE has caused a number of lawsuits over cleanups that have cost both cities and oil companies huge amounts of money.

In 2008, several major oil companies (including Chevron) that had mixed MTBE with gasoline reached a settlement in a lawsuit over MTBE contamination. The oil companies agreed to pay $422 million to various plaintiffs, such as municipal governments and public and private water companies. The oil companies also agreed to absorb 70 percent of any costs associated with cleaning up the plaintiffs' wells due to MTBE contamination up to 30 years after the settlement took effect.

Issues, challenges, and obstacles in the use of MTBE Many U.S. states have decided that the risks associated with MTBE are too great. Following California's lead, many states have called for MTBE to be phased out completely by 2014.

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Conclusion

In the early 21st century, most of the world remains dependent on fossil fuels for its energy needs. Many nations are deeply concerned about this dependence because the use of fossil fuels contributes to air pollution and climate change, and it sometimes leads to strife between nations. There is also concern that some types of fossil fuel are likely to run out in the not-too-distant future.

Many governments have begun looking for ways to end their dependence on oil. They are exploring alternative sources of energy and developing systems of public transportation.

For More Information

BOOKS

Black, Edwin. Internal Combustion: How Corporations and Governments Addicted the World to Oil and Derailed the Alternatives. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2006.

Blundell, Katherine, and Fraser Armstrong, eds. Energy … Beyond Oil. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Brune, Michael. Coming Clean: Breaking America's Addiction to Oil and Coal. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 2008.

Casper, Julie Kerr. Fossil Fuels and Pollution: The Future of Air Quality. New York: Facts on File, 2010.

Friedman, Lauri S. Fossil Fuels. San Diego: ReferencePoint Press, 2010.

Freudenburg, William R., and Robert Gramling. Blowout in the Gulf: The BP Oil Spill Disaster and the Future of Energy in America. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2011.

Homer-Dixon, Thomas. Carbon Shift: How the Twin Crises of Oil Depletion and Climate Change Will Define the Future. Toronto: Random House Canada, 2009.

Marcovitz, Hal. Can Renewable Energy Replace Fossil Fuels? San Diego: ReferencePoint Press, 2011.

Roberts, Paul. The End of Oil: On the Edge of a Perilous New World. New York: Mariner Books, 2005.

Ruddiman, William F. Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum: How Humans Took Control of Climate. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.

PERIODICALS

Clayton, Mark. “Climate-Change Paradox: Greenhouse Gas Is Big Oil Boon.” Christian Science Monitor (September 11, 2007).

“Deepwater Horizon Rig Had History of Spills, Fires Before Big Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill.” Nola.com/Associated Press (April 30, 2010).

Kerr, Richard A. “The Looming Oil Crisis Could Arrive Uncomfortably Soon.” Science 316 (2007): 351.

Witze, Alexandra. “That's Oil, Folks.” Nature 445 (2007): 14–17

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WEB SITES

CNN. “Lessons Learned from the Largest Oil Spill in History.” http://articles.cnn.com/2010-06-04/world/kuwait.oil.spill_1_slicks-oil-spill-rigs-and-pipelines?_s=PM:WORLD (accessed December 21, 2011).

National Geographic Society. “The End of Cheap Oil.” http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/end-cheap-oil.html (accessed November 7, 2011).

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). “DOE Fossil Energy-Related Education Materials.” http://www.fossil.energy.gov/education/index.html (accessed November 7, 2011).

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). “Crude Oil and Natural Gas Waste.” http://www.epa.gov/osw/nonhaz/industrial/special/oil/ (accessed November 7, 2011).

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). “Industry, Industries, Petroleum Industry.” http://www.epa.gov/ebtpages/induindustriespetroleumindustry.html (accessed November 7, 2011).

U.S. Government: Unified Command's Joint Information Center (JIC). “Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Response: Deepwater Horizon Reponse.” http://www.deepwaterhorizonresponse.com/go/site/2931/ (accessed November 7, 2011).

Source Citation

Source Citation   

Gale Document Number: GALE|CX4020100010