Weaving and Dyeing
Egyptian farmers grew flax alongside their grain crops. Flax was used to make linen for clothing. Converting the flax plant into linen was a long process. The threads were then woven on looms. The earliest known picture of a loom dates to around 3000 B.C.E. Linen was dyed using an array of minerals to make different colors.
Flax was collected in bundles and soaked in water to break down the tough outer parts of the plant. It was beaten with wooden mallets to separate the fibers, which were spun on sticks (spindles). The spindle had a weighted circular whorl on one end. The spinner set the spindles spinning on the ground. This pulled the fiber from the flax and twisted the thread around the spindle. It was now ready for weaving.
Dyes were made from various minerals. Red came from iron oxide or ochre, pale blue from copper carbonate, and green from malachite.