This article aims to develop a literature review of food nutrients and substances that can impact on thyroid function. A literature review using "hypothyroidism" associated with the descriptors iodine, selenium, zinc, soy, gluten and flavonoids was conducted on the Pubmed database in 2014. It was found 172 articles and 42 were selected, as well as other material needed to achieve the objective of this study. It was observed that iodide participates in the organification reaction and subsequently engages with tyrosyl residues to form the thyroid hormones. Excessive or deficient amounts of iodine contribute to thyroid dysfunction, including hypothyroidism. Selenium and zinc are co-factors for deiodination reactions, which convert thyroxine (T4) into triiodothyronine (T3) peripherally. Deficiency of these minerals can be developed on restrictive diets or unbalanced diet at any stage of life, collaborating with a decreased production of thyroid hormones. Furthermore, ingested substances, such as thiocyanate and isothiocyanate can compete with iodide for the entry in thyroid follicles and compromise hormones synthesis, as well as soy, which can inhibit thyroid peroxidase, enzyme responsible for the oxidation of iodide and formation of thyroid hormones, when there is iodine deficiency. In vivo studies that show the type and amount of flavonoids that may interfere with the conversion of T4 to T3 should be performed, as well as studies to elucidate the role of the exemption of gluten in the reversal of subclinical hypothyroidism. Keywords: Thyroid Gland. Iodine Deficiency. Thyroxine. Selenium. Soybean.