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One of the most active fields of scientific investigation involves studying the genetic code not only of humans, but of all kinds of living things. From plants to animals to viruses. Genetic engineering involves the amazing process of actually changing the genetic makeup of a living thing. For example scientists have produced vaccines by genetically changing viruses to protect us from harmful diseases. Genetic engineering has also created crops which are more resistant to disease, and also produce higher yields. Through genetic engineering microorganisms have even been altered to process sewage, and even clean up oil spills. While there have been numerous benefits from genetic engineering. There is concern about the long-term effects that genetically altered organisms may have on people and the environment.