Effectiveness of okra fruit (Abelmoschus esculentus) extract against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) as a bacterium that causes aggressive periodontitis

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Date: November-December 2020
From: Journal of International Oral Health(Vol. 12, Issue 6)
Publisher: Medknow Publications and Media Pvt. Ltd.
Document Type: Report
Length: 2,922 words
Lexile Measure: 1830L

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Byline: Muhammad. Luthfi, . Yuliati, Aqsa. Oki, Agung. Sosiawan, Bella. Cida

Aim: To determine that okra fruit extracts are effective in inhibiting growth and killing the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) bacteria that cause aggressive periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Aa ATCC 4371 strain Y3 serotype b bacteria obtained from the Stock Research Center of the Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University, Jawa Timur, Indonesia, were bred on the Mueller Hinton media with the inclusion criteria that identification of bacteria from the stock shows that the bacterium is Aa, and the growth of bacteria in the Mueller Hinton media is with a number of colonies between 30-300 colony forming units (CFU)/mL. Culture media containing Aa bacteria were incubated for 1 x 24h at 37[degrees]C, after it was diluted according to McFarland standard 0.5 (1.5 x 108 CFU/mL). Fresh okra fruit derived from Materia Medica was prepared for extract. Serial dilution or dilution methods of 1:2 (wt/vol) are used for the detection of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). Results: One-way analysis of variance test showed a difference with significance (P = 0.000), whereas, Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) test showed a significant difference between okra fruit extract group with positive control concentrations of 100%, 3.125%, and 1.565%. Conclusion: The okra fruit extract effectively kills the Aa bacteria that causes aggressive periodontitis, as indicated by MIC at a concentration of 3.125% and MBC at a concentration of 6.25%.


Periodontitis is an inflammation that affects the supporting tissues of teeth, which is caused by microorganisms, and can cause progressive damage to the periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, and is accompanied by pocket formation. Periodontitis causes permanent tissue destruction, characterized by chronic inflammation, migration of the fused epithelium to the apical, loss of connective tissue, and loss of alveolar bone.[1]

Aggressive periodontitis (AP) is a complex disease, which is caused by microbial changes and cellular dysfunction, and is characterized by a rapid loss of attachment and bone damage to the tooth surface.[2] The majority of periodontal pathogens are Gram-negative anaerobes and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ( Aa ), which has often been associated with AP.[3] The role of this bacterium in the pathogenesis of periodontitis is due to its ability to attach to epithelial cells and produce many virulent factors such as extracellular matrix proteins, proteases, collagenase, endotoxin (LPS), bacteriocins, hemotactic inhibitors, leukotoxins, cytotoxins, toxic metabolic substances, and immunosuppressive proteins.[4]

The use of synthetic drugs is not only expensive for the treatment of a disease, but also has toxicity and adverse side effects. This type of situation causes the need to look for new drug alternatives to treat a disease. Herbal alternatives have enormous potential to develop new drugs that are very useful for treatment and are strong and effective antibacterial agents.[5]

Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) has many benefits. This is because okra contains secondary metabolite components, such as alkaloids, terpenoids, and flavonoids.[6] Flavonoids found in plants are known for their antibacterial effects because of their ability to reduce the permeability of bacterial cell walls.[7]

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A643441199