The benefits of drones continue to transform our lives and nowhere is this more apparent than with the use of drones by local governments. While these benefits are tremendous, residents often express privacy concerns and fear of persistent surveillance associated with law enforcements deployment of drones. In response, critics have made knee jerk reactions to attempt to apply warrant requirements prior to police use of drones. Outside the law enforcement context, civic uses of drones face similar challenges to deployment, so long as government actors must operate under a traditional administrative warrant analysis.
This Article advocates that well established aerial surveillance law is applicable to both law enforcement use of drones as well as other public uses of drones. According to well established case law starting with California v. Ciraolo, (1) observations made by law enforcement are allowable sans warrant if they occur in public navigable airspace or from a place where the officer had a right to be. Such an analysis should be applicable to civic uses of drones when determining whether an administrative warrant is required prior to deploying public use drones for code enforcement and other municipal inspections. This Article also explores how government agencies can change negative perceptions of drones in their communities through adoption of proper policies and procedures.TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction 704 I. Current Federal Framework for Unmanned Aircraft 709 II. Aerial Surveillance Law under the Fourth Amendment and Property Rights as Applied to Law Enforcement 711 III. Code Enforcement use of Drones without Administrative Warrants 713 A. Public Vantage Points 715 B. Consent 716 C. Home and Property Inspections 716 IV. Government Agencies Should Create Clear Policies and Procedures for Public Use Drones 718 A. Transparency and Accountability Measures 718 B. Data Retention 720 C. Safety and Training 721 Conclusion 723
The evolution of drones, from military weapons to commercial tools, continues to transform civic life and nowhere is that more apparent than in the use of drones by cities themselves. Across the world, drones are becoming increasingly popular for public use. Cities like Modesto, California use drones to assist search-and-rescue efforts and deliver aerial imagery to law enforcement during criminal pursuits; (2) the Tampa Bay Port Authority Board of Commissioners intends to use drones to survey properties and construction projects; (3) the Minnesota Department of Transportation is using drones to inspect bridges and highways; (4) and Somerville, Massachusetts uses drones to survey municipal buildings for snow build-up. (5) Other intended public uses of drones operated by government agencies include:
* Aerial photography and filming of city events to be used for marketing purposes;
* Property inspections, code enforcement, and appraisals; (6)
* Firefighting activities; (7)
* Accident or crime scene investigation; (8)
* Ambulance and defibrillator drones; (9)
* Agricultural inspections; (10)
* Scientific research (11) on natural resources, wildlands, and waterways; (12)
* Tactical advantage and use in hazardous and hostile situations. (13)
The way private businesses use drones will illuminate new and more cost-effective ways of carrying out government business, while increasing efficiency and reducing...