Leishmaniasis in Northern Morocco: Predominance of Leishmania infantum Compared to Leishmania tropica

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Publisher: Hindawi Limited
Document Type: Article
Length: 5,808 words
Lexile Measure: 1340L

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Abstract :

In Morocco, Leishmania infantum species is the main causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). However, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to L. infantum has been reported sporadically. Moreover, the recent geographical expansion of L. infantum in the Mediterranean subregion leads us to suggest whether the nonsporadic cases of CL due to this species are present. In this context, this review is written to establish a retrospective study of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in northern Morocco between 1997 and 2018 and also to conduct a molecular study to identify the circulating species responsible for the recent cases of leishmaniases in this region. Data concerning leishmaniases cases were collected from the Epidemiology and Disease Control Directorate from 1997 to 2018. Human samples obtained from peripheral laboratories were examined using PCR-ITS1 method. The ITS1 products were subjected to digestion with the restriction endonuclease Mn1- I. Between 1997 and 2018, a total of 1,255 cases of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis were recorded in Tangier-Tetouan-Al Hoceima Region, i.e., 1.56% of the reported cases in Morocco (1,255/80,299). Concerning the geographical study covering the period 2007-2018, 79.5% (105/132) of the sectors were affected by leishmaniases. The molecular results showed that Humans were found to be infected with the L. infantum species with a high infection rate compared to L. tropica infection. Moreover, molecular characterization using ITS1 PCR-RFLP showed that the density of L. infantum was significantly higher (n = 68/81; 84%) than that of L. tropica (n = 13/81; 16%) (P-value 9.894e-10). While regarding visceral leishmaniasis, L. infantum was the only species responsible of this form. These findings of this study showed the emergence of L. infantum in Morocco and suggest that this species might be more prevalent than previously thought. Furthermore, the molecular determination of L. infantum will be helpful for control strategies by taking into consideration the reservoir of this species.

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A601028643