Current research approaches employ traditional tissue engineering strategies to promote vocal fold (VF) tissue regeneration, whereas recent novel advances seek to use principles of developmental biology to guide tissue generation by mimicking native developmental cues, causing tissue or allogenic/autologous progenitor cells to undergo the regeneration process. To address the paucity of data to direct VF differentiation and subsequent new tissue formation, we characterize structure-proliferation relationships and tissue elastic moduli over embryonic development using a murine model. Growth, cell proliferation, and tissue biomechanics were taken at E13.5, E15.5, E16.5, E18.5, P0, and adult time points. Quadratic growth patterns were found in larynx length, maximum transverse diameter, outer dorsoventral diameter, and VF thickness; internal VF length was found to mature linearly. Cell proliferation measured with EdU in the coronal and transverse planes of the VFs was found to decrease with increasing age. Exploiting atomic force microscopy, we measured significant differences in tissue stiffness across all time points except between E13.5 and E15.5. Taken together, our results indicate that as the VF mature and develop quadratically, there is a concomitant tissue stiffness increase. Greater gains in biomechanical stiffness at later prenatal stages, correlated with reduced cell proliferation, suggest that extracellular matrix deposition may be responsible for VF thickening and increased biomechanical function, and that the onset of biomechanical loading (breathing) may also contribute to increased stiffness. These data provide a profile of VF biomechanical and growth properties that can guide the development of biomechanically-relevant scaffolds and progenitor cell differentiation for VF tissue regeneration.