In the ocean, remineralization rate associated with sinking particles is a crucial variable. Since the 1990s, particulate biogenic barium (Ba.sub.xs) has been used as an indicator of carbon remineralization by applying a transfer function relating Ba.sub.xs to O.sub.2 consumption (Dehairs's transfer function, Southern Ocean-based). Here, we tested its validity in the Mediterranean Sea (ANTARES/EMSO-LO) for the first time by investigating connections between Ba.sub.xs, prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) and oxygen consumption (JO.sub.2 -Opt; optodes measurement). We show that (1) higher Ba.sub.xs (409 pM; 100-500 m) occurs in situations where integrated PHP (PHP100/500=0.90) is located deeper, (2) higher Ba.sub.xs occurs with increasing JO.sub.2 -Opt, and (3) there is similar magnitude between JO.sub.2 -Opt (3.14 mmol m.sup.-2 d.sup.-1 ; 175-450 m) and JO.sub.2 -Ba (4.59 mmol m.sup.-2 d.sup.-1 ; transfer function). Overall, Ba.sub.xs, PHP and JO.sub.2 relationships follow trends observed earlier in the Southern Ocean. We conclude that such a transfer function could apply in the Mediterranean Sea.