ChrXq27.3 miRNA cluster functions in cancer development.

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Date: Mar. 25, 2021
Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.
Document Type: Article
Length: 5,550 words
Lexile Measure: 1370L

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Abstract :

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of their target genes post-transcriptionally; thus, they are deeply involved in fundamental biological processes. miRNA clusters contain two or more miRNA-encoding genes, and these miRNAs are usually coexpressed due to common expression mechanisms. Therefore, miRNA clusters are effective modulators of biological pathways by the members coordinately regulating their multiple target genes, and an miRNA cluster located on the X chromosome q27.3 region has received much attention in cancer research recently. In this review, we discuss the novel findings of the chrXq27.3 miRNA cluster in various types of cancer. The chrXq27.3 miRNA cluster contains 30 mature miRNAs synthesized from 22 miRNA-encoding genes in an ~ 1.3-Mb region. The expressions of these miRNAs are usually negligible in many normal tissues, with the male reproductive system being an exception. In cancer tissues, each miRNA is dysregulated, compared with in adjacent normal tissues. The miRNA-encoding genes are not uniformly distributed in the region, and they are further divided into two groups (the miR-506-514 and miR-888-892 groups) according to their location on the genome. Most of the miRNAs in the former group are tumor-suppressive miRNAs that are further downregulated in various cancers compared with normal tissues. miR-506-3p in particular is the most well-known miRNA in this cluster, and it has various tumor-suppressive functions associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, proliferation, and drug resistance. Moreover, other miRNAs, such as miR-508-3p and miR-509-3p, have similar tumor-suppressive effects. Hence, the expression of these miRNAs is clinically favorable as prognostic factors in various cancers. However, the functions of the latter group are less understood. In the latter group, miR-888-5p displays oncogenic functions, whereas miR-892b is tumor suppressive. Therefore, the functions of the miR-888-892 group are considered to be cell type- or tissue-specific. In conclusion, the chrXq27.3 miRNA cluster is a critical regulator of cancer progression, and the miRNAs themselves, their regulatory mechanisms, and their target genes might be promising therapeutic targets. Keywords: miRNA, X chromosome, miRNA cluster, Epithelial-mesenchymal transition, Proliferation, Drug-resistance, miR-506-3p, miR-888-5p

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A657286994