Monophasic Salmonella 4,:12:i:- are a major public health problem because they are one of the top five Salmonella serotypes isolated from clinical cases globally and because they can carry resistance to multiple antibiotics. A total of 811 Salmonella 4,:12:i:- and S. Typhimurium whole genome sequences (WGS) were generated. The various genetic lesions causing the Salmonella 4,:12:i:- genotype were identified and assessed with regards to their distribution in the population of 811 Salmonella 4,:12:i:- and S. Typhimurium isolates, their geographical and temporal distribution, and their association with non-human sources. Several clades were identified in the population structure, and the largest two were associated almost exclusively with a short prophage insertion and insertion of a mobile element carrying loci encoding antibiotic and mercury resistance. IS26-mediated deletions and fljB point mutants appeared to spread clonally. 'Inconsistent' Salmonella 4,:12:i:- isolates associated with specific, single amino acid changes in fljA and hin were found in a single clade composed of water, shellfish, and avian isolates. Inclusion of isolates from different case clusters identified previously by PFGE validated some of the clusters and invalidated others. Some wgMLST clusters of clinical isolates composed of very closely related isolates contained an isolate(s) with a different genetic lesion, suggesting continuing mobility of the implicated element responsible. Such cases may need to be left out of epidemiological investigations until sufficient numbers of isolates are included that statistical significance of association with sources is not impaired. Non-human sources were frequently found in or near clinical case clusters. Prospective surveillance and WGS of non-human sources and retrospective analysis by WGS of isolates from existing culture collections provides data critical for epidemiological investigations of food- and waterborne outbreaks.