Super-enhancers: a new frontier for epigenetic modifiers in cancer chemoresistance.

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Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.
Document Type: Article
Length: 10,007 words
Lexile Measure: 1590L

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Abstract :

Although new developments of surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy treatments for cancer have improved patient survival, the emergence of chemoresistance in cancer has significant impacts on treatment effects. The development of chemoresistance involves several polygenic, progressive mechanisms at the molecular and cellular levels, as well as both genetic and epigenetic heterogeneities. Chemotherapeutics induce epigenetic reprogramming in cancer cells, converting a transient transcriptional state into a stably resistant one. Super-enhancers (SEs) are central to the maintenance of identity of cancer cells and promote SE-driven-oncogenic transcriptions to which cancer cells become highly addicted. This dependence on SE-driven transcription to maintain chemoresistance offers an Achilles' heel for chemoresistance. Indeed, the inhibition of SE components dampens oncogenic transcription and inhibits tumor growth to ultimately achieve combined sensitization and reverse the effects of drug resistance. No reviews have been published on SE-related mechanisms in the cancer chemoresistance. In this review, we investigated the structure, function, and regulation of chemoresistance-related SEs and their contributions to the chemotherapy via regulation of the formation of cancer stem cells, cellular plasticity, the microenvironment, genes associated with chemoresistance, noncoding RNAs, and tumor immunity. The discovery of these mechanisms may aid in the development of new drugs to improve the sensitivity and specificity of cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs. Keywords: Super-enhancer, Chemoresistance, Epigenetic reprogramming, Cancer, Therapy

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A665435383