Predicting in-hospital mortality in adult non-traumatic emergency department patients: a retrospective comparison of the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) and machine learning approach.

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From: PeerJ(Vol. 9)
Publisher: PeerJ. Ltd.
Document Type: Article
Length: 6,216 words
Lexile Measure: 1460L

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Abstract :

Background A feasible and accurate risk prediction systems for emergency department (ED) patients is urgently required. The Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) is a wide-used tool to predict clinical outcomes in ED. Literatures showed that machine learning (ML) had better predictability in specific patient population than traditional scoring system. By analyzing a large multicenter dataset, we aim to develop a ML model to predict in-hospital morality of the adult non traumatic ED patients for different time stages, and comparing performance with other ML models and MEWS. Methods A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted in five Taiwan EDs including two tertiary medical centers and three regional hospitals. All consecutively adult ( 17 years old) non-traumatic patients admit to ED during a 9-year period (January first, 2008 to December 31th, 2016) were included. Exclusion criteria including patients with (1) out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and (2) discharge against medical advice and transferred to other hospital (3) missing collect variables. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and were categorized into 6, 24, 72, 168 hours mortality. MEWS was calculated by systolic blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, and level of consciousness. An ensemble supervised stacking ML model was developed and compared to sensitive and unsensitive Xgboost, Random Forest, and Adaboost. We conducted a performance test and examine both the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) and the area under the precision and recall curve (AUPRC) as the comparative measures. Result After excluding 182,001 visits (7.46%), study group was consisted of 24,37,326 ED visits. The dataset was split into 67% training data and 33% test data for ML model development. There was no statistically difference found in the characteristics between two groups. For the prediction of 6, 24, 72, 168 hours in-hospital mortality, the AUROC of MEW and ML mode was 0.897, 0.865, 0.841, 0.816 and 0.939, 0.928, 0.913, 0.902 respectively. The stacking ML model outperform other ML model as well. For the prediction of in-hospital mortality over 48-hours, AUPRC performance of MEWS drop below 0.1, while the AUPRC of ML mode was 0.317 in 6 hours and 0.2150 in 168 hours. For each time frame, ML model achieved statistically significant higher AUROC and AUPRC than MEWS (all P 4, and 5) were determined as baselines for comparison, ML mode consistently showed improved or equally performance in sensitivity, PPV, NPV, but not in specific. Conclusion Stacking ML methods improve predicted in-hospital mortality than MEWS in adult non-traumatic ED patients, especially in the prediction of delayed mortality.

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A673021627