Conservation tillage has attracted increasing attention over recent decades, mainly due to its benefits for improving soil organic matter content and reducing soil erosion. However, the effects of long-term straw mulching under a no-till system on soil physicochemical properties and bacterial communities at different soil depths are still unclear. In this 12-year experiment of straw removal (CK) and straw mulching (SM) treatments, soil samples were collected at 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm soil depths. The results showed that the contents of organic carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) fractions, and bacterial abundance significantly decreased, whereas pH significantly increased with soil depth. Compared with CK, SM significantly increased total N, inorganic N, available P, available potassium, and soil water content at 0-5 cm, total organic C content at 0-10 cm, and dissolved organic C and N contents at 0-20 cm. Regarding bacterial communities, SM increased the relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria but reduced those of Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Cyanobacteria. Bacterial Shannon diversity and Shannon's evenness at 0-5 cm were reduced by SM treatment compared to CK treatment. Furthermore, SM increased the relative abundances of some C-cycling genera (such as Terracidiphilus and Acidibacter) and N-cycling genera (such as Rhodanobacter, Rhizomicrobium, Dokdonella, Reyranella, and Luteimonas) at 0-5 cm. Principal coordinate analysis showed that the largest difference in the composition of soil bacterial communities between CK and SM occurred at 0-5 cm. Soil pH and N and organic C fractions were the major drivers shaping soil bacterial communities. Overall, SM treatment is highly recommended under a no-till system because of its benefits to soil fertility and bacterial abundance.