Nickel stress-tolerance in plant-bacterial associations.

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From: PeerJ(Vol. 9)
Publisher: PeerJ. Ltd.
Document Type: Article
Length: 16,020 words
Lexile Measure: 1400L

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Abstract :

Nickel (Ni) is an essential element for plant growth and is a constituent of several metalloenzymes, such as urease, Ni-Fe hydrogenase, Ni-superoxide dismutase. However, in high concentrations, Ni is toxic and hazardous to plants, humans and animals. High levels of Ni inhibit plant germination, reduce chlorophyll content, and cause osmotic imbalance and oxidative stress. Sustainable plant-bacterial native associations are formed under Ni-stress, such as Ni hyperaccumulator plants and rhizobacteria showed tolerance to high levels of Ni. Both partners (plants and bacteria) are capable to reduce the Ni toxicity and developed different mechanisms and strategies which they manifest in plant-bacterial associations. In addition to physical barriers, such as plants cell walls, thick cuticles and trichomes, which reduce the elevated levels of Ni entrance, plants are mitigating the Ni toxicity using their own antioxidant defense mechanisms including enzymes and other antioxidants. Bacteria in its turn effectively protect plants from Ni stress and can be used in phytoremediation. PGPR (plant growth promotion rhizobacteria) possess various mechanisms of biological protection of plants at both whole population and single cell levels. In this review, we highlighted the current understanding of the bacterial induced protective mechanisms in plant-bacterial associations under Ni stress.

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A677195235