Background and Aim: Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) used in agricultural production pose environmental and public health risks whenever non-target organisms are exposed to them. Oxon-type OPs, such as trichlorfon (TCF) and chlorpyrifos (CPF), are frequently used in Colombia and have been detected in water bodies in the vicinity of croplands; however, their effect on aquatic organisms, especially fish, is largely unknown. The neurotoxicity of OPs includes inhibition of esterase enzymes, neuronal damage, and increased glial reactivity. This study aimed to assess the astrocytic response in the brain tissue of juvenile red-bellied pacu (Piaractus brachypomus) exposed to TCF and CPF. Materials and Methods: A 25-day subchronic assay was conducted in whichjuvenile red-bellied pacu were exposed to CPF and TCF. After 25 days of exposure, the fish were killed and brain samples were collected and processed for immunohistochemistry to assess the morphology and reactivity of astrocytes; glial acidic fibrillary protein was used as a biomarker. Results: The brain samples from animals under subchronic exposure to OPs for 25 days showed higher cellular density as well as changes in astrocyte phenotype characterized by shortening of cytoplasmic projections, hypertrophy, and ameboid morphology compared to those from nonexposed animals. Similarly, astrocyte hyperreactivity was detected in the optic tectum and medial longitudinal fasciculus of the exposed group. Conclusion: Immunoreactivity ofbrain glial cells under subchronic exposure to OPs measured through immunohistochemical tests as well as OPs-induced neuropathology may be useful as a biomarker for monitoring environmental pollution. The results also indicate that P. brachypomus is a suitable biomonitoring model for studying neurotoxicological and neurodegenerative diseases. Keywords: astrocytes, fish, neurotoxicity, organophosphates, toxicity biomarkers.