Genetic susceptibility to multiple sclerosis in African Americans.

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From: PLoS ONE(Vol. 16, Issue 8)
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Document Type: Report
Length: 9,906 words
Lexile Measure: 1460L

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Abstract :

Objective To explore the nature of genetic-susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) in African-Americans. Background Recently, the number of genetic-associations with MS has exploded although the MS-associations of specific haplotypes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been known for decades. For example, the haplotypes HLA-DRB1*15:01~HLA-DQB1*06:02, and HLA-DRB1*03:01~ HLA-DQB1*02:01 have odds ratios (ORs) for an MS-association orders of magnitude stronger than many of these newly-discovered associations. Nevertheless, all these haplotypes are part of much larger conserved extended haplotypes (CEHs), which span both the Class I and Class II MHC regions. African-Americans are at greater risk of developing MS compared to a native Africans but at lesser risk compared to Europeans. It is the purpose of this manuscript to explore the relationship between MS-susceptibility and the CEH make-up of our African-American cohort. Design/methods The African-American (AA) cohort consisted of 1,305 patients with MS and 1,155 controls, who self-identified as being African-American. For comparison, we used the 18,492 controls and 11,144 MS-cases from the predominantly European Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) and the 28,557 phased native Africans from the multinational "Be the Match" registry. The WTCCC and the African-Americans were phased at each of five HLA loci (HLA-A, HLA-C, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1) and the at 11 SNPs (10 of which were in non-coding regions) surrounding the Class II region of the DRB1 gene using previously-published probabilistic phasing algorithms. Results Of the 32 most frequent CEHs, 18 (56%) occurred either more frequently or exclusively in Africans) whereas 9 (28%) occurred more frequently or exclusively in Europeans. The remaining 5 CEHs occurred in neither control group although, likely, these were African in origin. Eight of these CEHs carried the DRB1*15:03~DQB1*06:02~a36 haplotype and three carried the DRB1*15:01~DQB1*06:02~a1 haplotype. In African Americans, a single-copy of the European CEH (03:01_07:02_07:02_15:01_06:02_a1) was associated with considerable MS-risk (OR = 3.30; p = 0.0001)-similar to that observed in the WTCCC (OR = 3.25; p Conclusions The common CEHs in African Americans are divisible into those that are either African or European in origin, which are derived without modification from their source population. European CEHs, linked to MS-risk, in general, had similar impacts in African-Americans as they did in Europeans. By contrast, African CEHs had mixed MS-risks. For a few, the MS-risk exceeded that in a neutral-reference group whereas, for many others, these CEHs were "protective"-perhaps providing a partial rationale for the lower MS-risk in African-Americans compared to European-Americans.

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A671258351