Late Evening Eating Patterns among US Adults Vary in Their Associations With, and Impact on, Energy Intake and Diet Quality: Evidence from What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2016.

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Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishers
Document Type: Article
Length: 507 words

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Keywords Late evening dietary patterns; Diet quality; Energy intake; NHANES; Adults Abstract Background Evening eating has been associated with higher energy intake and lower nutrient density. However, these qualities may not characterize all late evening (LE) eating patterns. Objective We sought to characterize US adults' LE eating patterns on a given day and identify differences, if any, in pattern-specific associations with, and impact on, daily energy intake and total diet quality. Design LE eating patterns, energy intakes, and Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores were identified using Day-1 dietary recall data from the cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2016. Participants/setting The sample included adults aged [greater than or equal to] 20 years (n = 9,861). LE reporters were respondents who consumed foods/beverages between 20:00 and 23:59 on the intake day. Main outcome measures Energy intake and HEI-2015 scores by LE status/pattern and the impact of LE consumption on these measures. Statistical analyses Cluster analysis assigned individuals to LE eating patterns based on the LE energy contribution of food/beverage groups. Regression models estimated energy intake and HEI-2015 scores; estimates were compared between LE reporters and nonreporters. Similarly, LE's contribution to total energy and the difference in total HEI inclusive vs exclusive of LE consumption were estimated and compared among patterns. Results Among US adults, 64.4% were LE reporters. Eleven LE patterns were identified; the six most prevalent patterns (representing 89% of LE reporters) were further analyzed. Daily energy intake in all prevalent patterns except the fruit pattern exceeded that of nonreporters by [greater than or equal to] 268 kcal (unadjusted; P Conclusions Late evening food/beverage consumption is common among US adults, and LE patterns are not monolithic in their associations with, and impact on, total energy intake and dietary quality. Author Affiliation: US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville, Maryland * Address correspondence to: Rhonda S. Sebastian, MA, USDA Food Surveys Research Group, BARC-West, 10300 Baltimore Ave, Bldg 005, Room 102, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350. Article History: Received 28 July 2020; Accepted 10 November 2021 (footnote) Supplementary Materials: and and are available at (footnote) STATEMENT OF POTENTIAL CONFLICT OF INTEREST No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. (footnote) FUNDING/SUPPORT There is no funding to disclose. (footnote) AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS R. S. Sebastian designed the study with contributions from C. Wilkinson Enns; J. D. Goldman and T. Murayi conducted the statistical analyses; R. S. Sebastian and C. Wilkinson Enns prepared the manuscript; R. S. Sebastian had final responsibility for its content; and A. J. Moshfegh provided supervisory programmatic support. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Byline: Rhonda S. Sebastian, MA [] (*), Cecilia Wilkinson Enns, MS, RDN, LN, Joseph D. Goldman, MA, Theophile Murayi, PhD, Alanna J. Moshfegh, MS, RD

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A700982608