Dynamically forced increase of tropical upwelling in the lower stratosphere

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From: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences(Vol. 68, Issue 6)
Publisher: American Meteorological Society
Document Type: Author abstract; Report
Length: 212 words

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Abstract :

Drivers of upwelling in the tropical lower stratosphere are investigated using the E39C-A chemistryclimate model. The climatological annual cycle in upwelling and its wave forcing are compared to the interim ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim). The strength in tropical upwelling and its annual cycle can be largely explained by local resolved wave forcing. The climatological mean forcing is due to both stationary planetary-scale waves that originate in the tropics and extratropical transient synoptic-scale waves that are refracted equatorward. Increases in atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations to 2050 force a year-round positive trend in tropical upwelling, which maximizes in the lowermost stratosphere. Tropical ascent is balanced by downwelling between 20 [degrees] and 40 [degrees]. Strengthening of tropical upwelling can be explained by stronger local forcing by resolved wave flux convergence, which is driven in turn by processes initiated by increases in tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Higher tropical SSTs cause a strengthening of the subtropical jets and modification of deep convection affecting latent heat release. While the former can modify wave propagation and dissipation, the latter affects tropical wave generation. The dominant mechanism leading to enhanced vertical wave propagation into the lower stratosphere is an upward shift of the easterly shear zone due to the strengthening and upward shift of the subtropical jets. DOI: 10.1175/2011JAS3701.1

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A259749904