Environmental Spread of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Escherichia coli and ESBL Genes among Children and Domestic Animals in Ecuador.

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From: Environmental Health Perspectives(Vol. 129, Issue 2)
Publisher: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Document Type: Report
Length: 7,157 words
Lexile Measure: 1420L

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Abstract :

Background: There is a significant gap in our understanding of the sources of multidrug-resistant bacteria and resistance genes in community settings where human-animal interfaces exist. Objectives: This study characterized the relationship of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (3GCR-EC) isolated from animal feces in the environment and child feces based on phenotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and whole genome sequencing (WGS). Methods: We examined 3GCR-EC isolated from environmental fecal samples of domestic animals and child fecal samples in Ecuador. We analyzed phenotypic and genotypic AMR, as well as clonal relationships (CRs) based on pairwise single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analysis of 3GCREC core genomes. CRs were defined as isolates with fewer than 100 different SNPs. Results: A total of 264 3GCR-EC isolates from children (n = 21), dogs (n = 20), and chickens (n = 18) living in the same region of Quito, Ecuador, were identified. We detected 16 CRs total, which were found between 7 children and 5 domestic animals (5 CRs) and between 19 domestic animals (11 CRs). We observed that several clonally related 3GCR-EC isolates had acquired different plasmids and AMR genes. Most CRs were observed in different homes (n = 14) at relatively large distances. Isolates from children and domestic animals shared the same [bla.sub.CTX-M] allelic variants, and the most prevalent were [bla.sub.CTX-M-55] and [bla.sub.CTX-M-65], which were found in isolates from children, dogs, and chickens. Discussion: This study provides evidence of highly dynamic horizontal transfer of AMR genes and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the E. coli community and shows that some 3GCR-EC and (extended-spectrum [beta]-lactamase) ESBL genes may have moved relatively large distances among domestic animals and children in semirural communities near Quito, Ecuador. Child-animal contact and the presence of domestic animal feces in the environment potentially serve as important sources of drug-resistant bacteria and ESBL genes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7729

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A657071196