Objective. To investigate the correlation between interleukin-27 and CXCL10 and other cytokines in pulmonary tuberculosis and to further explore the related miRNAs through bioinformatics. Methods. Collect the lesion tissue and peripheral blood of pulmonary tuberculosis patients and the peripheral blood of healthy controls. Immunohistochemical staining and qRT-PCR were used to observe the expression of interleukin-27, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. Then, predict the key miRNA, qRT-PCR was used to verify the expression of miRNA in the peripheral blood and evaluated the correlation between them. Results. Both immunohistochemical staining and qRT-PCR indicated that the expressions of IL-27, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 were significantly increased in tuberculosis patients, and IL-27 was significantly correlated with CXCL10 (r=0.68). Key molecules such as has-let-7b-5p, has-miR-30a-3p, and has-miR-320b were screened out. Among them, has-let-7b-5p was significantly downregulated, and has-miR-30a-3p was significantly upregulated; they were related to interleukin-27 and CXCL10. Conclusion. Our data shows that interleukin-27 and CXCL10 are significantly related in pulmonary tuberculosis, and has-let-7b-5p and has-miR-30a-3p are also related to interleukin-27 and CXCL10. It laid the foundation for subsequently exploiting the potential biomarkers in tuberculosis disease.