Although myxomycetes are ubiquitous in terrestrial ecosystems, studies on their distribution and diversity in subtropical humid forests are still lacking. Field collections and moist chamber cultures were conducted from May to October within a two-year period in the Tiantangzhai National Forest Park of China. A total of 1,492 records representing 73 species belonging to 26 genera were obtained, of which 243 records/37 species were from field collections, and 1,249 records/52 species were from moist chamber cultures. Among the specimens obtained by culturing, 896 records/38 species and 353 records/37 species were obtained from living bark and ground litter, respectively. ANOVA showed that the sampling months had significant impacts on collection of myxomycetes from field and those that inhabit litter. An LEfSe analysis indicated that Arcyria was significantly abundant in August, while Stemonitis and Physarum were more abundant in July when collected from field. An RDA analysis showed that temperature was the main factor that affected the litter-inhabiting myxomycetes. The ANOVA indicated that forest type was the significant factor for bark-inhabiting myxomycetes. Diderma effusum was primarily obtained from mixed forests, while Clastoderma debaryanum and Colloderma oculatum were more common in coniferous forests. The RDA analysis indicated that the vegetation, pH, water retention, and elevation were the primary factors that affected the bark-inhabiting myxomycetes.