Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common gynecological tumor in terms of both the incidence and mortality of females worldwide. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) accounts for 70-80% of cervical cancers, and endocervical adenocarcinoma (EAC) accounts for 20-25%. Unlike CSCC, EAC has worse clinical outcomes and prognosis. In this study, we explored the relationship between various types of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and pathological types of cervical cancer. Methods RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and clinical data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used in this study. A single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) and the ESTIMATE package were used to assess lncRNA activity and immune responses, respectively. RT-qPCR was performed to verify our findings. Results We explored the relationship between various types of lncRNAs and pathological types of cervical cancer. A series of long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) and antisense RNAs, which are the major types of lncRNAs, were identified to be specifically expressed in EAC and associated with a poor recurrence prognosis in patients with cervical cancer, suggesting that they might serve as independent prognostic markers of recurrence in patients with cervical cancer. RT-qPCR was performed to verify the 10 EAC-specific lncRNAs in cervical cancer samples we collected. Furthermore, the overexpression of these lncRNAs was positively correlated with EAC pathology levels but negatively correlated with immune responses in the microenvironment of cervical cancer. Conclusions These lncRNAs potentially represent new biomarkers for the prediction of the recurrence prognosis and help obtain deeper insights into potential immunotherapeutic approaches for treating cervical cancer.