Byline: Funing Meng (1), Dan Xiang (1), Jianshu Zhu (1), Yong Li (1), Chuanzao Mao (1) Keywords: Rice; Root system architecture; Molecular mechanism; Genetic control Abstract: Roots are fundamentally important for growth and development, anchoring the plant to its growth substrate, facilitating water and nutrient uptake from the soil, and sensing and responding to environmental signals such as biotic and abiotic stresses. Understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling root architecture is essential for improving nutrient uptake efficiency and crop yields. In this review, we describe the progress being made in the identification of genes and regulatory pathways involved in the development of root systems in rice (Oryza sativa L.), including crown roots, lateral roots, root hairs, and root length. Genes involved in the adaptation of roots to the environmental nutrient status are reviewed, and strategies for further study and agricultural applications are discussed. The growth and development of rice roots are controlled by both genetic factors and environmental cues. Plant hormones, especially auxin and cytokinin, play important roles in root growth and development. Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating root architecture and response to environmental signals can contribute to the genetic improvement of crop root systems, enhancing their adaptation to stressful environmental conditions. Author Affiliation: (1) 0000 0004 1759 700X, grid.13402.34, State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China Article History: Registration Date: 28/12/2018 Received Date: 14/02/2018 Accepted Date: 27/12/2018 Online Date: 10/01/2019 Article note: Funing Meng and Dan Xiang contributed equally to this work. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1186/s12284-018-0262-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.