Historical biogeography of Loranthaceae (Santalales): Diversification agrees with emergence of tropical forests and radiation of songbirds

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Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Document Type: Report
Length: 457 words

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Keywords Divergence time; Eocene; Gondwana; Long-distance dispersal; Mistletoe Highlights * Loranthaceae are monophyletic with Nuytsia as sister to the remaining members. * Loranthaceae were estimated to have originated in Australasian Gondwana. * A diversification burst of Loranthaceae occurred during the Eocene climatic optimum. * The burst of Loranthaceae corresponded to the rapid radiation of songbirds. * Loranthaceae rapidly diversified along with the emergence of tropical forests. Abstract Coadaptation between mistletoes and birds captured the attention of Charles Darwin over 150 years ago, stimulating considerable scientific research. Here we used Loranthaceae, a speciose and ecologically important mistletoe family, to obtain new insights into the interrelationships among its hosts and dispersers. Phylogenetic analyses of Loranthaceae were based on a dataset of nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences. Divergence time estimation, ancestral area reconstruction, and diversification rate analyses were employed to examine historical biogeography. The crown group of Loranthaceae was estimated to originate in Australasian Gondwana during the Paleocene to early Eocene (59 Ma, 95% HPD: 53--66 Ma), and rapidly diversified, converting from root parasitic to aerial parasitic trophic mode ca. 50 Ma during the Eocene climatic optimum. Subsequently, Loranthaceae were inferred to be widespread in Australasia and South America but absent in Africa. The African and European members were derived from Asiatic lineages. The burst of diversification of Loranthaceae occurred during a climatic optimum period that coincides with the dominance of tropical forests in the world. This also corresponds to the trophic mode conversion of Loranthaceae and rapid radiation of many bird families -- important agents for long-distance dispersal in the Cenozoic. Author Affiliation: (a) State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China (b) Sino-Africa Joint Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074, China (c) University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China (d) Hanoi Pedagogical University No. 2, 32 Nguyen Van Linh, Xuanhoa, Phucyen, Vinhphuc, Viet Nam (e) National Herbarium of New South Wales, Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust, Sydney, Mrs Macquaries Road, Sydney 2000, New South Wales, Australia (f) Australian National Herbarium, Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research, GPO Box 1700, Canberra 2601, Australian Capital Territory, Australia (g) Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, IL 62901-6509 USA (h) Laboratorio Ecotono, INIBIOMA (CONICET-Universidad Nacional del Comahue), Quintral 1250 (8400), Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina * Corresponding authors at: State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China (L. Lu). Article History: Received 14 November 2017; Revised 3 March 2018; Accepted 7 March 2018 (footnote)1 Contributed equally to this paper. Byline: Bing Liu (a,b,1), Chi Toan Le (a,b,c,d,1), Russell L. Barrett (e,f), Daniel L. Nickrent (g), Zhiduan Chen (a,b), Limin Lu [liminlu@ibcas.ac.cn] (a,b,*), Romina Vidal-Russell [vidalrussell@comahue-conicet.gob.ar] (h,*)

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Gale Document Number: GALE|A576250021